Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullah] said:
“Souls are no doubt created, but they do not cease to exist. Their death occurs when they are separated from the body, and at the second Trumpet-blast the souls will return to the bodies. “
[Majmoo' al-Fataawa, 4/279]
The commentator on at-Tahaawiyyah also discussed this matter, and said:
“The people differed as to whether the soul dies or not.
One group said, it dies because it is a nafs, and every nafs will taste death … If the angels will die, then it is more appropriate that the human soul will die too.
Others said that the souls will not die, because they were created to abide forever; what dies is the body. They said, this is proven by the ahaadeeth which indicate that the souls will be blessed or tormented after they depart (from the bodies), until Allah returns them to their bodies.
The correct view is to say that the death of the nafs is when it is separated from its body and departs from it. If this is what is meant by its death, then it will taste death. But if it is meant that it will cease to exist altogether, then it does not die in this sense, rather it will abide after it has been created, either in bliss or in torment. .. Allah tells us that the people of Paradise
“will never taste death therein except the first death of this world” [Qur'an 44: 56]
and that is the death which means the separation of the soul from the body.”
[Sharh at-Tahaawiyyah, p. 446]
[The minor resurrection, page-134]
What do you say, O Shaykh, about those who claim that mercy should not be asked for those who contradict the belief of the salaf like Ibn Hajar and an-Nawawee, ibn Hazm and ibn al-Jawzee and those like them from the scholars of the past, as well as those modern leaders like Hasan al-Bannah and Sayyid Qutb, considering that you are familiar with what Hasan al-Bannah wrote in his book Muthakkiraat ad-Dawah wad-Daaýiyah, and Sayyid Qutb in Fee Thilaal al-Quraan.
We believe that rahmah (mercy); that is, a statement supplicating to Allaah to have mercy upon someone; is permissible for any Muslim and forbidden for any disbeliever. This answer refers to the belief which is held in the soul of the individual.
So whoever believes that those who were mentioned in the question and those similar to them are Muslims, then the answer is known from what was said previously; that is, it is permissible to make duaa (supplication) for them that Allaah has mercy on them and forgives them.
And whoever considers those mentioned in the question to be non-Muslims – may Allaah not let it be so – then asking for Allaah’s mercy for them would not be permissible, because mercy has been made forbidden for the disbelievers. That is the response relative to what came in the question.
[Recorded by Abu Laylaa al-Athharee on the 7th of Shabaan in the year 1413, corresponding to the 31st of January 1993]
On the authority of al-‘Irbâd ibn Sâriyah (radiAllahu anhu) who said:
|“The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) gave us a profound admonition which caused our hearts to tremble and our eyes to shed tears.”
(Abû Dawûd, at-Tirmidhî, Ibn Mâjah)
On the authority of Anas (radiAllahu anhu) who said:
|“The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) gave us a sermon, the like of which we had never heard before. He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said “If you knew what I know you would laugh little and weep much!”. Thereupon the Companions of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) covered their faces, weeping and sniffing. 
(Bukhârî and Muslim)
The Weeping of Abû Bakr (radiAllahu anhu)
Abû Bakr’s recitation in prayer could not be heard due to his excessive weeping, as we have been informed by ‘Aisha (radiAllahu anhu) who said:
|“During his illness the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Order Abû Bakr to lead the prayer”. ‘Aisha said, “I told the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) that indeed, if Abû Bakr stands in your place (to lead the people in prayer) the people will not be able to hear him due to his (excessive) weeping. So order ‘Umar to lead the prayer.” The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said again: “Order Abû Bakr to lead the prayer”. Then ‘Aisha told Hafsah: “Tell the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) that if Abû Bakr stands in your place, the people will not be able to hear him due to his weeping, so order ‘Umar to lead the people in prayer”. So Hafsah did this and the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) replied: “Desist! Verily you are like the companions of Yûsuf. Order Abû Bakr to lead the prayer.””
“Indeed Abû Bakr is a man of tender feelings, if he takes your place he will not be able to lead the people in prayer”. (al Bukhârî)
The Weeping of Umar (radiAllahu anhu)
The weeping of ‘Umar (radiAllahu anhu) could be heard from the last rows, as it has been reported to us by ‘Abdullah ibn Shaddâd, who said,
|“I heard the sobbing of ‘Umar from the last rows while he was reciting the verse from the Qur’ân:
“I only complain of my grief and sorrow to Allâh”. (12:86)
(al Bukhârî, al Bayhaqi (2/251), Sahîh)
The Weeping of ‘Uthmân ibn ‘Affan (radiAllahu anhu)
On the authority of Hâni, the freed slave of ‘Uthman, who said
|“When ‘Uthmân ibn ‘Affan stood at a grave he wouls weep until his beard was wet. So it was said to him: “Indeed you make mention of Paradise and Hellfire and you do not weep, and you are weeping at this?”. He replied, “Indeed the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Verily the grave is the first abode of the Hereafter, if one is saved from it then what follows is made easier for him. And if one is not saved from it, then what follows is more severe”. He also (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, “I have never seen a sight more horrid than the grave””
(at-Tirmidhî -ghareeb, Ibn Mâjah)
The Weeping of ‘Aisha (radiAllahu anha)
Ibn al-Hârith the nephew of ‘Aisha (radiAllahu anha) the wife of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) narrated that she was told that ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr (on hearing that she was selling of giving a gift) said:
|“By Allâh, if ‘Aisha does not give this up, I will make hijrah (ie boycott) from her.” She asked, “Did he say this?”. They replied, “Yes”. Then ‘Aisha said, “I vow to Allâh that I will never speak to Ibn az-Zubayr.” When this desertion was prolonged, ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr sought intercession with the people converning her but she said, “By Allâh I will not accept the intercesson of anyone on his behalf and will not commit a sin by breaking my vow”. When this state of affairs was prolonged on Ibn az-Zubayr (ie he felt it hard on himself), he spoke to al-Miswar bin Makhramah and ‘Abdur Rahmân bin al-Aswad bin ‘Abd Yaghûth, who were from the tribe of Bani Zuhrah, saying “I beseech you by Allâh to (help) me to enter upon ‘Aisha, for it is unlawful for her to vow to cut off relations with me  “. So al-Miswar and ‘Abdur Rahmân went with him wrapping their cloaks around themselves, they went to ‘Aisha and asked her permission (to enter) saying “Assalâmu alayki wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu! May we come in?” ‘ ‘Aisha responded “Come in”. They asked, “All of us?”. She replied “Yes, come in, all of you” unaware that Ibn az-Zubayr was also with them. So when they entered, Ibn az-Zubayr entered the place which screened (‘Aisha from the other men and embraced ‘Aisha and started requesting her to excuse him and wept. al-Miswar and ‘Abdur Rahmân also started urging her to speak to him and to accept his apology. They said to her: “You know what the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) forbade regarding deserting (not speaking to your Muslim brethren), for it is unlawful for any Muslim not to talk to his brother for more than three nights”. So when they increased in reminding her (of the superiority of having good relations with kith and kin, and of excusing others sins) and of the unhappy and unpleasant constrictions that are a consequence of breaking the ties of relationship, she started reminding them while she wept saying, “I have made a vow, and (the issue of a) vow is a different one”. They persisted in their appeal until she spoke to ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr and she freed forty slaves as an expiation for her vow. Later on whenever she remembered her vow, she would weep so profusely that her veil would become wet with her tears”.
The Weeping of Umm Ayman (radiAllahu anha) and Her Stirring of Abû Bakr and ‘Umar to Weep
On the authority of Anas who said: “Abû Bakr said to ‘Umar, after the death of the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam),
|“Let us go and visit Umm Ayman (the nursemaid/servant of the Prophet saw during his childhood), as the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to visit her.” When they finished visiting her (and were about to leave) she began to cry. So they asked her: “What is it that makes you cry? Is not that which is with Allâh better for the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)?” So she replied, “I am not crying because I am unaware that that which is with Allâh is better for the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) but I am crying because the revelation from the heavens has stopped.” This moved them to tears, so they both began to weep with her.”
The Weeping of ‘Abdur Rahmân ibn ‘Auf (radiAllahu anhu)
On the authority on Sa’d ibn Ibrahîm, that his father said,
|“‘Abdur Rahmân ibn ‘Aud was brought some food when he had been fasting, and he remarked: “Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr has been martyred, and he was better than me. His shroud was so short, that if his head was covered (with it) then his legs showed, and if his legs were covered, then his head showed, and I witnessed this.” He also said, “Hamzah was martyred and he was better than me. And now the world has been spread out for us.” Or he said: “We have been given the Abû ndance of the world, and we fear that we have been rewarded for our good deeds here (quickly in this world only)”. Then he began to cry, such that he left his food”
The Weeping of Salman al-Farsi (radiAllahu anhu)
On the authority of Anas (radiAllahu anhu) who said,
|“Salman was suffering from illness, so Sa’d visited him and saw him crying, so he said to him, “What is it that makes you weep, O my brother? Did you not accompany the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)? Is that not so, is that not so?!” Salman replied, “I am not weeping for either of the following reasons: I am not weeping for the sake of the world nor out of hate of the Hereafter. Rather the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) entrusted me with a pledge, and I can only see myself as having transgressed.” So he asked, “What were you entrusted with?” He replied, “He entrusted me with a pledge that the provision of a traveller should suffice anyone of us, and I see myself as only having transgressed. And as for you, O Sa’d! Fear Allâh with your ruling when you make a judgement, and fear Him with your distribution when you distribute, and fear Him with your intention when you intend to do something.””
(Ibn Mâjah and others)
|“I heard that he only left twenty dirhams from the money that he had (after his death)”
(Sahîh Sunan Ibn Mâjah)
The Weeping of Abû Hashim ibn ‘Utbah (radiAllahu anhu)
On the authority of Samurah bin Sahm, who said:
|“I went to Abû Hashim ibn ‘Utbah and he had a knife wound. So Mua’wiyah came to visit him, and Abû Hashim was crying. So Mua’wiyah asked: “What is it that makes you cry, O Uncle?! Is it the pain or is it for the world (that you are crying)?” He replied, “Neither, but the Messenger of Allâh entrusted me with a trust and I wish that I had carried it out.” He said, “Verily you may attain some of the wealth which will be divided between the people. Indeed, sufficient for you is: a servant and a riding animal for the sake of Allâh.” So I did attain this wealth and accumulated it (ie he acquired more than what the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) advised him to suffice himself with).”
(Ahmad, at-Tirmidhî, an-Nasâ’î, Ibn Mâjah)
(1) The sound of weeping without sobbing. The Arabic word used is khaneen, meaning a sound which issues from the nose (an Nihayah). Al Hâfidh says in al-Fath, It is reported as Haneen with a “h” by msot of those who related Sahîh al Bukhârî and al-Kashmihani related it as khaneen; the first refers to the sound that emanates from weeping of the chest and the second, from the nose.
(2) al Hâfidh said in al-Fath: “The similarity between ‘Aisha and the people of yusuf was that the wife of the ‘Aziz had invited some of the women (of her town) to honour them with a royal feast but her real motive was that she wanted to exhibit the beauty of Yusuf (alaiahissalam) to them. And ‘Aisha’s apparent motive for requesting the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) to spare her father from the responsibility of leading the people in prayer was that (due to his being a very sensitive man) the faithful would not be able to hear his recitation due to his weeping (whilst reciting). However the more complete meaning here is (her real motive is that she feared) that other people might see a bad omen in him (in case of the death of the Prophet saw). It is reported by al-Bukhârî, on the authority of ‘Aisha who said, “I persisted in my request to the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) with regards to this as much as I could. Because it never entered my heart that the people could ever love a man who took the Messenger of Alllah’s place, so I wanted the Messenger of Allâh to change his mind about Abû Bakr” (also in Muslim).
(3) al-Hâfidh said “Because he was her nephew and she was mainly responsible for his upbringing”.
[Book: Weeping from the fear of Allah, page:13-18]
Iblis has deceived some worshipers to perform a lot of night prayers. Some of them pray the entire night, and they feel happier when performing night and duha prayers more than obligatory prayers. Some fall asleep right before fajr and miss the obligatory prayer. Others wake up too lazy to work for sustaining their families.
I saw a Shaikh from among them named Husayn al-QazwinI walking a lot during the day in al-Mansur Masjid. When I inquired about this I was told that he does this so he does not fall asleep.
This does not conform with teachings of Islam or with sound intellect:
As for logic, the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said:
“Your body has a right over you, so wake up (when appropriate) and sleep (when appropriate) .“
[Abu Dawud, 1369]
And He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say:
“Adhere to moderate demeanor. Whoever arm-wrestles this religion will loose.”
[Musnad Ahmed 5/350, Hakim 1/312]
Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) entered and saw a rope extended between two poles, he said:
‘What is this rope?’ They said: ‘it is a rope of Zainab, when she feels tired she hangs unto it.’ The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said:
‘Untie the rope, you should work actively until you feel tired, then you should rest.”‘
And Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said:
“If one of you feels sleepy then he should lie down until he is no longer sleepy. Because if he prays while he is sleepy he might curse himself (mistakenly) instead of seeking forgiveness.”
[Bukharee 1/271, Muslim 786]
As for the sound intellect:
Sleep re-energises a person, so when a person repells it, this might harm his body and mind.
So we seek refuge with Allah from ignorance.
If someone says: But we were informed that members of the Salaf used to pray at night?
those individuals were gradual in doing so. They made certain not to miss fajr prayer and to take a nap during the day. They also did not eat much, so this worked out well for them. It was not reported to us that Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) stayed awake an entire night. His Sunnah is more worthy of being followed.
Some of those falling for Iblis’s deception try to insinuate to others that they were up praying last night. So they would say: So and so, the Adhan giver, gave adhan on time.
If this person did not intent to show-off then he has made public his action, which will result in reducing his reward.
[Talbees Iblees by Imam Ibn al-Jawzi, page 240-242]
Fortune-telling (soothsaying) is claimed to be seeking the truth; in pursuit of that claim, fortune-tellers employ baseless means. In the Jahili (pre-Islamic) period, fortune telling was a profession of some people in contact with devils. Those devils tried to eavesdrop whatever they could in the heavens, then communicate it to fortune-tellers, who add to it and communicate it to people. If this coincidentally agrees with what actually occurs, people are misled to believe in those fortune-tellers and consider them credible references for judgments and predicting the future, hence the common definition of the fortune-teller as the one who foretells the future.
Regarding consulting fortune-tellers, there are three forms of relationship:
In one form, people consult the fortune-teller, but they do not believe him. This is forbidden, and it is a punishable offence as mentioned in the Hadith, ―If one consults a soothsayer, his prayers will not be accepted for forty days.
In another form, people consult the fortune-teller and believe him. This is Kufr (disbelief in Allah), because they believe the fortune-teller‘s claim to know the unseen, which is denial of Allah‘s saying, ―Say (O Muhammad): None in the heavens and the earth knoweth the Unseen save Allah. That is why the Hadith states, ―Whoever consults a soothsayer and believes what he says disbelieves in what has been revealed to Muhammad.
In the third form, some people go to the fortune-teller and pretend to be consulting him so that they can expose him, his mischief and his deceptive ways to the public. There is no objection to doing that, as verified by the incident of Ibn Sayyadh; the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم had something on his mind for him, and asked him if he knew what it was. Ibn-Sayyadh replied, ―It is Addukh (smoke). The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said to him, ―Scram! Never will you go beyond your limits.
Thus, only the third approach to fortune-tellers is acceptable, for it exposes their despicable reality, whereas the first two are forbidden.
[Ibn-Uthaymeen, The Precious Collection, Vol. 2, pp. 136-137]
Abu Al-Malih reported on the authority of his father who said that the Prophet [sallallahu alaihi wasallam] said:
“Allah does not accept charity from Ghulül , nor does He accept prayer without purification.”
[Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, no. 59, sahih]
Abu Hurairah [radiAllahu anhu] narrated that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu alaihi wasallam] said:
“Allah – the Exalted, Majestic is His mention – does not accept the prayer of one of you, when he commits Hadath  until he performs Wudü’.”
[Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, no. 60, sahih]
‘All bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu alaihi wasallam] said:
[Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, no. 61, Hasan]
»»» Charity given from unlawfully earned wealth; via cheating, theft, robbery, bribery, and extortion, etc., are not accepted by Allah.
1] Ghulül means that which is treacherously acquired; and specifically it means taking from the spoils of war before they are divided among the soldiers by the leader.
»»» Purification is a condition for the acceptance of Salat. In case water cannot be used, Tayammum will substitute.
2] Referring to whatever invalidates Wudu
»»» If one breaks Wudü’ in the course of Salat, one shall leave the prayer and perform Wudü’ all over again
This is necessary for the compatibility and longevity of marriage. But despite this, many couples do not bother to give this issue any attention. This involves the likes and dislikes of each other and what pleases and displeases each other. Also, this is something which is not understood by merely asking the spouse, bu also by observation and insight.
The best example to illustrate this point is the story of Qadi Shuraih who says:
“I married a man from the tribe of Tamim. On the first night I made ablution and offered prayers. She joined in. When I finished, I asked Allah to make her a means of blessings, to grant me pleasure from her good qualities, and to protect me from her bad. Then I praised Allah. She said: ‘I am a stranger for you. Whatever pleases you I will oblige and whatever displeases you I will avoid.’ So I told her what I liked and disliked. She asked: ‘Would like my family to visit me?’ I told her that since I was a Judge, i would bore them. Then she asked me which neighbors I preferred, so I informed her.”
“I lived with this women in happiness and bliss for a whole year. Then, an old women came to the house who was ordering my wife around. On enquiring, I found out that she was my mother-in-law who immediately asked me: ‘How are you with your wife?’ I said that she is the best wife I could have. The mother said: ‘There is no worse person than the one who is spoiled. If she puts you in any kind of doubt then hit her.”
The mother would then come every year to our house and give advice to her daughter. I lived with my wife for twenty years and only once was I angry at her. And that too was my mistake.”
[This story is mentioned in Al-Iqdul Farid]