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Ibn Taymiyyah Concerning Predestination (Qadar)

August 27, 2014 1 comment


Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah  (may Allah have mercy on him and reward him greatly) said:

“The viewpoint of Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jamaa ‘ah on this issue is that which is indicated by the Qur’an and Sunnah, and that which was followed by the Sahaba (Companions), the Muhaajiroon (Emigrants to Madeenah) and Ansaar (Helpers, Muslim residents of Madeenah), and those who followed them in truth. This view is that Allah is the Creator and Sovereign of all things, which includes all independent entities and their attributes, such as people’s deeds and other things.


Whatever He wills happens, and whatever He does not will does not happen. Nothing can happen except by His will and decree. Nothing is beyond Him if He wills it; rather, He is the One Who is Able to do all things, and He does not will anything but He is able to do it. Allah knows what has happened and what is yet to come; if it is not to happen, He knows how it would have been if it had happened. This includes people’s actions and other things. Allah, the Exalted, decreed the decrees of His creation before He created them; He decreed their lifespans, their provision and their deeds, and wrote that down, and He wrote down their ultimate destiny, who will be blessed and who will be doomed.

So they (Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jamaa ‘ah) believe that He created all things, that He is Able to do all things, that His will encompasses all that exists, and that He knew and decided and wrote all things before they came into being. “

Majmoo ‘ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/449.


He [rahimahullah] also said:

“The Salaf (Pious Predecessors) and aaimmah (the leading scholars) of this ummah are agreed that people are commanded to do that which Allah has commanded them, and are forbidden to do that which Allah has forbidden. They are agreed on their belief in His promise and His warning, which are spoken of in the Qur’an and Sunnah.
They are agreed that there is no justification for anyone with regard to neglecting any obligatory duty or committing any forbidden act; but Allah has perfect evidence against His slaves. “

Majmoo ‘ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/452.


Read: “If the people one day want revival, then Al-Qadar (Divine Predestination) has no choice but to answer.”



“Among the things that are agreed upon by the Salaf (Pious Predecessors) and aaimmah (the leading scholars) of this ummah is their belief in Divine will and Predestination (al-Qadaa ‘ wal-Qadar), and that Allah is the Creator of all things. What He wills happens, and what He does not will does not happen. Allah sends astray whomsoever He wills, and He guides whomsoever He wills. They also believe that people have their own will and freedom to choose, so they do by their own will and power that which Allah enables them to do, but they point out that people do not will anything except that which Allah wills. “

Majmoo ‘ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/459.


[Taken from: Divine will and Predestination by Umar Sulaiman al-Ashqar, page 122-124]


The Negative Results of Abandoning Jihad- Jamaal Ad Deen Az-Zarabozo


The following are some of the negative results of abandoning Jihad:


1) The abandonment of Jihad is a source of destruction in both this life and in the hereafter. With respect to this life, if people do not make an effort to propagate and defend what they believe in, they will be subjugated and despised by others and will not be able to live freely. With respect to the hereafter, the person who does not perform jihad will not be deserving of Allah’s mercy and he will actually be destroying himself. Allah says,


وَأَنفِقُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَلاَ تُلْقُواْ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ وَأَحْسِنُوَاْ إِنَّ اللّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

“Spend your wealth for the cause of Allah , and be not cast by your own hands to ruin ; and do good . Lo! Allah loves the beneficent!” [Al-Baqarah, 195]


This verse was explained by Abu Ayyoob Al Ansaari [RadiAllahu anhu].

When the Muslims were trying to penetrate the enemy’s ranks at Constantinople, some of them said that they were not supposed to ‘kill themselves by their own hands. Abu Ayyoob said, “We are more knowledgeable [than others] about this verse. It was revealed concerning us, the Sahaba of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). We participated in the battles with the Prophet and Allah aided us. Then when Islam spread and we were victorious, we said, ‘Allah has honored us by being companions of the Prophet and He aided him until Islam spread and its adherents were many. We sacrificed our time with our families, wealth and children. Now, the burden of war is over and we should return to our families and children and spend our time with them.’ Then Allah revealed concerning us, ‘Spend your wealth for the cause of Allah, and be not cast by your own hands to ruin; and do good. Lo, Allah loves the beneficent. [1]‘”

Thus, by abandoning spending in the way of Allah and, therefore, jihad, the person is actually destroying himself by his own hands.




2) The abandonment of Jihad is a reason for humiliation and disdain. The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said,

إِذَا تَبَايَعْتُمْ بِالْعِينَةِ ، وَأَخَذْتُمْ أَذْنَابَ الْبَقَرِ ، وَرَضِيتُمْ بِالزَّرْعِ ، وَتَرَكْتُمْ الْجِهَادَ ، سَلَّطَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ ذُلا لا يَنْزِعُهُ حَتَّى تَرْجِعُوا إِلَى دِينِكُمْ

“Surely, If you abandon the Jihad and spend all of your time with your agriculture and you deal in Al-‘Eenah[2], then Allah will make humiliation accompany you and not allow you to be rid of it until you repent to Allah and return to your original state [before this condition].'” [3]


Al Ulyaani wrote,

What the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), who does not speak from his own desires, stated is certainly true.


If anyone looks at the situation of the Muslims today who are heedless of the most important aspects of their religion as they have abandoned the Jihad against the kuffar and taking the Jizyah from them, he will see that Allah has inflicted them with humiliation as they turn to the kuffar of the east or the of the west, seeking aid and honor from them, and they do not even realize that this humiliation will never leave them until they return to their religion as the most honest speaker [the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)] has stated in this hadeeth. If they continue in their present state they can be given the same tidings that Allah has given them [when he said],

“Bear unto the hypocrites the tidings that for them there is a painful doom; those who choose kuffar for their patrons instead of believers. Do they look for power at their hands? Lo, all power belongs to Allah.” [4:138-139][4]



3) The Abandonment of jihad is also a source of calamity, afflictions and trials.

The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said,

“If you participate in al-eenah, take after the tails of cows, become pleased with agriculture and leave jihad in the way of Allah, Allah will inflict upon you a disgrace that will not leave you until you return to their religion.”[5]



4) The abandonment of jihad can also be a source of punishment from Allah.

Allah says in the Quran,

إِلاَّ تَنفِرُواْ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً وَيَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْماً غَيْرَكُمْ وَلاَ تَضُرُّوهُ شَيْئاً وَاللّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
“If you go not forth [for jihad] He will afflict you with a painful doom, and will choose instead of you a folk other than you. You cannot harm Him at all. Allah has power over all things”

[At-Tawbah, 39]


Jihad, in one of its many forms or another, will always exist and be a communal imperative. The reality of this world is that every human falls into one of two groups or parties: the party that follows the messengers of Allah (called “the party of Allah”) and the party that refuses to believe in and follow the messengers whom Allah had sent for their own benefit (this group is called “the part of Satan”).


The relation between these two parties is one of enmity. Satan, the leader of the forces of evil, swore to mislead mankind until the day of Judgment.

Allah says,

قَالَ فَبِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي لأَقْعُدَنَّ لَهُمْ صِرَاطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

“He [the Satan] said: Now, because you have sent me astray, verily I shall lurk in ambush for them on your Right path. Then I shall come upon them from before them and from behind them and from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them beholden (unto You)” [Al-Araaf, 16-17]


Furthermore, unbelievers, in general, will never be satisfied and will never rest until they eradicate as many forms of true obedience and worship of Allah as they can. Allah clearly states,

وَلاَ يَزَالُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ حَتَّىَ يَرُدُّوكُمْ عَن دِينِكُمْ إِنِ اسْتَطَاعُواْ وَمَن يَرْتَدِدْ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَيَمُتْ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

“And they will not cease from fighting against you till they have made you renegades from your religion, if they are able to do so.” [Al-Baqarah, 217]


Therefore, the only way that Allah’s law, justice, right and truth will prevail on this earth is if the believers in Allah sacrifice their time, wealth and souls for the establishment of truth. In other words, Muslims must participate in jihad until the day of Judgment since the ungodly forces will not rest until that time.




1] Ibn Katheer, Tafseer Al Qur’aan Al ‘Adheem Vol. 1 pp. 402-403


[2] Al-‘Eenah is a type of business deal that implicitly involves Ribaa’ (usury) although outwardly it seems void of it.


[3] Recorded by Imaam Ahmad. Ahmad Al Banna wrote, “I have not found this hadeeth with such a wording except in Ahmad’s collection and its chain is good. Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah and Al Baihaqi related the same hadeeth with a different wording but with the same meaning…And the hadith has a lot of supporting evidence.” Al Banna, vol. 15 pp. 44-45


[4] ‘Ali Al-Ulyaani, Ahamiyat Al Jihaad pg. 248


[5] Recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawood and others. Ahmad al-Banna stated, “Recorded by Abu Dawood and al-Tabaraani. The narrators of Ahmad’s hadith are all trustworthy and ibn al-Qattaan stated the hadith to be sahih. And the hadith has many other hadith and chains supporting and strengthening it.” Al-Banna, vol.14, p.27. Al-Albaani also says this hadith is sahih, al-Albaani, Silsilat al-Ahadith al-Sahiha, vol. 1, pp. 15.



Family Man- Life of Ahmed bin Hanbal [rahimahullah]


Ahmad bin Hanbal [rahimahullah] did not marry or occupy himself with making money until he was past the age of forty and had got the knowledge he wanted. We are told that he was precisely forty at the time of his first marriage, which means he married in 204/819–20. His wife was an ‘Abbasah bint al-Fadl, of Arab lineage. She gave birth to a son, Salih, who grew up to be Ahmad’s biographer, a collector of his opinions, and a qadi. Then she died

(IAY, 2:49; Manaqib, 298 402).



Ahmad next married his paternal cousin, Rayhanah, who was one-eyed. She gave birth to a son, ‘Abd Allah, who grew up to be the main collector of Ahmad’s opinions and hadith (IAY, 2:49; Manaqib, 299 403), before she in her turn died. Rayhanah may have been a concubine, whom Ahmad bought, with his wife’s permission, for the sake of offspring (Manaqib, 177 243). However, Ahmad is also reported to have told a disciple,

‘Salih’s mother lived with me for thirty years without our disagreeing over a single word” (Manaqib, 298–9 402–3).

 If she was with him for thirty years, she must have died about 234/848–9, whereas ‘Abd Allah is said to have been born in 213/828–9 (TB 9:376). Therefore, it seems likely that Ahmad’s household at some point included either two wives or a wife and a concubine.



Then Ahmad bought Husn, who gave birth to several children: Umm ‘Ali Zaynab, a daughter (perhaps also called Fatimah – girls might bear two names), twins al-Hasan and al-Husayn, who died shortly after birth, al-Hasan and Muhammad, who lived to be around 40 years old, and finally Sa‘id, who grew up to become a deputy qadi in Kufa (IAY, 2:49; Manaqib, 307 414).


For years, I have collected references to the sources of income of Muslim men of religion. The one that comes up most often is trade; for example, Ahmad’s shaykh, Abu ‘Asim al-Nabil (died Basra, 212/828?), was a silk trader (TI 15:192). The second most common is income from rents.

Ahmad’s principal source of income seems to have been renting out the property he inherited from his father: one shop brought in three dirhams a month (Hilyah 9:179).


A collection of shops is said to have yielded seventeen dirhams a month in the 220s/ mid-830s–40s (Ibn Kathir, 10:337).



He occasionally sold items made by his womenfolk, mainly spun yarn and woven cloth (Sirah, 42) and sometimes accepted a government stipend (‘ata’) as an Arab and a soldier’s son (Siyar 11:320). He also went out to glean (Siyar 11:320).


Ahmad seems to have been continually short of cash. A bookseller relates getting four or five dirhams from a person who said it was half of everything he owned. The bookseller went on to Ahmad, who gave him four dirhams, with the comment that it was all he owned. There are several other stories in which he gives away all he owns, in the form of four or five dirhams (Manaqib, 240 324–5). He is reported to have been overjoyed when one of his tenants came to him with one and a half dirhams: “I supposed that he had assigned it to some pressing need” (Manaqib, 225 307).


Ahmad’s house was probably divided into sections around a central courtyard. Ahmad’s sons lived there even after they married. It had a well, as is shown by the tale of Abu al-Fawaris, who rented a property from Ahmad.

One day, Ahmad told him that the boy had thrown a set of shears down the well. (Parents know how these things happen.) Abu al-Fawaris went down to retrieve them, so Ahmad instructed his grocer to give him half a dirham. Ahmad had an account with this grocer and evidently used him as banker. Abu al-Fawaris refused to take half a dirham for so small a job, so Ahmad excused him of three months’ rent

(Siyar 11:219).


Studying the Quran as a Source of Culture and Knowledge


The Quran contains a great deal of information about the prophets who appeared before the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon them) as well as the different peoples who were destroyed because of their refusal to obey Allah’s laws.

If someone wanted to learn about such people as a matter of culture and learning, one can find this needed information in the Quran. Obviously, the historical information stated in the Quran is not meant to teach the Muslims history but is meant for much more than that, as shall be noted below. As Murad advised,

Do not read it merely for intellectual pursuit and pleasure; even though you must apply your intellect to the full to the task of understanding the Quran. So many people spend a lifetime in studying the language, style, history, geography, law and ethics of the Quran, and yet their lives remain untouched by its message. The Quran frequently refers to people who have knowledge but do not derive benefit from it.

[Khurram Murad, Way to the Quran (Leicester, UK: The Islamic Foundation, 1 985), p. 28.]



In fact, in the history of Islam, many people got distracted by delving into this aspect of the Quran in great detail. They attempted to discover all of the details that they could about the people that Allah talks about in the Quran. That is why one can find in some of the books of Quranic commentary discussions of the following issues: the type of tree from which Adam ate, the type of wood Noah used to build his ark, the names and types of birds that Abraham killed and were brought back to life, the names of the Companions of the Cave as well as the name of their dog, the price for which Joseph was sold, the name of the ruler who debated with Abraham and numerous other details that Allah has left unmentioned in the Quran.

[Ibn Katheer, Tafseer al-Quran al-Adheem, p . 14]




None of that type of information was necessary as everything that the Muslims need for guidance is contained in the Quran. Unfortunately, many did not grasp this point and turned to unauthentic sources to discover the history of the prophets and people mentioned in the Quran. Regrettably, much of the unauthentic information they uncovered found its way into many of the commentaries on the Quran.



Included in this category of people could be those who read the Quran simply for its linguistic and artistic beauty. They tum to the Quran to read pure and beautiful Arabic and to study the prose of the Arabic language. Or, perhaps, they study the Quran as a type of art. Their Quranic study does not go beyond that; therefore, they miss the true purpose of the Quran.


[How to approach and understand the Quran by Jamal al Din Zarabozo, page 88-89]

The First People to Enter Paradise



The first of mankind to enter Paradise will be our Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and the first nation to enter Paradise will be his ummah. The first member of this ummah to enter will be Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (radiAllahu anhu).


Ibn Katheer quotes a number of Hadith [an-Nihayah, 2/213] that state this such as the report of Muslim from Anas (radiAllahu anhu) according to which the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said,

“I will be the first one to knock at the gates of Paradise”.



Muslim also reported from Anas that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said:

“I will come to the gates of paradise and ask for it to be opened.

The gatekeeper will ask, “Who are you?”

I will say, “Muhammad”.

The gatekeeper will say, “I was ordered not to open the gate for anyone else before you””.



al-Bukhaari, Muslim and an-Nasaa’ee report from Abu Hurayrah (radiAllahu anhu) that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said:

“We are the last, but we will be the first on the Day of Resurrection. We will be the first of mankind to enter Paradise”.



Abu Dawood reports from Abu Hurayrah (radiAllahu anhu) that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said,

“Jibreel came to me, and showed me the gate of Paradise through which my ummah will enter”.

Abu Bakr said, “O Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), would that I had been with you to see it!”.

The Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “But you, O Abu Bakr, will be the first of my ummah to enter Paradise”.


[Source: al-Jannah wa an-Naar by Dr. Umar Sulaiman al-Ashqar, pg 50]


Do Souls Die?


Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullah] said:

“Souls are no doubt created, but they do not cease to exist. Their death occurs when they are separated from the body, and at the second Trumpet-blast the souls will return to the bodies. “

[Majmoo' al-Fataawa, 4/279]


The commentator on at-Tahaawiyyah also discussed this matter, and said:

“The people differed as to whether the soul dies or not.

One group said, it dies because it is a nafs, and every nafs will taste death … If the angels will die, then it is more appropriate that the human soul will die too.


Others said that the souls will not die, because they were created to abide forever; what dies is the body. They said, this is proven by the ahaadeeth which indicate that the souls will be blessed or tormented after they depart (from the bodies), until Allah returns them to their bodies.


The correct view is to say that the death of the nafs is when it is separated from its body and departs from it. If this is what is meant by its death, then it will taste death. But if it is meant that it will cease to exist altogether, then it does not die in this sense, rather it will abide after it has been created, either in bliss or in torment. .. Allah tells us that the people of Paradise

“will never taste death therein except the first death of this world” [Qur'an 44: 56]

and that is the death which means the separation of the soul from the body.”

[Sharh at-Tahaawiyyah, p. 446]

[The minor resurrection, page-134]

Saying ‘rahimahullah’ for an innovator – Shaykh al-Albanee



What do you say, O Shaykh, about those who claim that mercy should not be asked for those who contradict the belief of the salaf like Ibn Hajar and an-Nawawee, ibn Hazm and ibn al-Jawzee and those like them from the scholars of the past, as well as those modern leaders like Hasan al-Bannah and Sayyid Qutb, considering that you are familiar with what Hasan al-Bannah wrote in his book Muthakkiraat ad-Dawah wad-Daaýiyah, and Sayyid Qutb in Fee Thilaal al-Quraan.


Shaykh al-Albaani:

We believe that rahmah (mercy); that is, a statement supplicating to Allaah to have mercy upon someone; is permissible for any Muslim and forbidden for any disbeliever. This answer refers to the belief which is held in the soul of the individual.


So whoever believes that those who were mentioned in the question and those similar to them are Muslims, then the answer is known from what was said previously; that is, it is permissible to make duaa (supplication) for them that Allaah has mercy on them and forgives them.


And whoever considers those mentioned in the question to be non-Muslims – may Allaah not let it be so – then asking for Allaah’s mercy for them would not be permissible, because mercy has been made forbidden for the disbelievers. That is the response relative to what came in the question.

[Recorded by Abu Laylaa al-Athharee on the 7th of Shabaan in the year 1413, corresponding to the 31st of January 1993]



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