Home > Aqidah, Ash'ariyyah | Jahmiyyah | Mu'tazilah, Refutations, Sayings and Actions of Salaf as Saalih > Narrations from the Salaf concerning what necessitates Allah’s Attributes does not necessitates the creation’s Attribute. |Part2| {Book: The ’Ash’aris: In the Scales of Ahl us-Sunnah}

Narrations from the Salaf concerning what necessitates Allah’s Attributes does not necessitates the creation’s Attribute. |Part2| {Book: The ’Ash’aris: In the Scales of Ahl us-Sunnah}

Narrations from the Salaf concerning what necessitates Allah’s Attributes does not necessitates the creations Attributes.

 

1.Abdul Azeez bin Abdullah bin Abi  Salamah al-Majishun(d.164AH/781CE)

He said:

 

As for the one who rejects what the Rabb (Lord) described about Himself then he has been deluded by the devils who are on the earth. As a result, he (the rejector) began to use as for his claim to reject what the Lord described and named for Himself that: “It is a must that if He has such and such then He would have to be such and such”. So he disregarded what was clear with that which was unknown, and rejected what the Lord named for Himself as descriptions for the Lord for what He did not name for Himself.

 

 

2. Imam Abu Yusuf al Qadi Yaqub bin Ibraheem al Kufi(d.182AH/798CE)

 

He said:

For that reason it is not permissible to make an analogy in tawheed, Allah is not known except by His Names and He is not to be described except by His Attributes...He commanded us to single Him out and tawheed is not by analogy. This is because analogy is in regards to things which have a resemblance or likeness yet Allah has neither resemblance nor likeness unto Him, Blessed is He the Best of the Creators.

How can tawheed be understood by analogy when He is the Creator of creation contrary to the creation, there is nothing like unto Him, Blessed and High is He?

 

 

3. Abdur Rahman bin al Qasim al Utqi Abu Abdullah al Misri al Maliki(d.191AH/807CE)

 

Ibn ’AbdulBarr said:

 

It reached me from Ibn il-Q sim that he did not view there being a problem in relaying the hadeeth: “Indeed, Allah laughs…” because laughing from Allah, like descending and amazement are also from Him yet are not like what is found from His servants.

 

 

He also said:

 

It is not suitable for anyone to describe Allah except with what He described Himself with in the Qur’an.

 

His Hands and Face do not resemble anything yet it is still said that: “He has Two Hands just as He described Himself in the Qur’an; He has a Face just as He described Himself in the Qur’an”, one is to stop at what He described Himself with in the Book for there is no likeness or similarity unto Him, Blessed is He.

 

Rather, He is Allah and there is no god worthy of worship except He and He is how He described Himself and His Hands are Outstretched just as He described Himself,

 

“…while the earth entirely will be [within] His grip on the Day of Resurrection, and the

heavens will be folded in His right hand.”

{az-Zumar (39): 67}

 

 

4. Al Hafidh Nuaym bin Hammad bin Muawiyah al Khazai(d.228AH/843CE)

 

He said:

 

Whoever resembles Allah with anything from His creation has disbelieved and whoever rejects what Allah described Himself with has disbelieved. Whatever Allah and His Messenger describe Allah with is not tashbeeh.

 

[ Reported by al-Lalikai’ , Usool I’tiqad Ahl us-Sunnah wa’l-Jama’ah (Riyadh, KSA: Dar Tayyibah, 1411 AH, 2nd Edn.), vol.3, p.523 and Abu Ismaeel al-Harawi in Dhamm ul-Kal m wa Ahluhu (Madeenah, KSA: Maktabat al-

Athariyyah, 1419 AH, ed. ’Abdullah bin Muhammad al-Ansar ), vol.4, p.263.]

 

 

5. Abdul Azeez bin Yahya bin Abdul Azeez al Kanani(d.230AH/845CE)

 

He said in his discussion with a Jahmi:

 

 

The Jahmi says: “Inform us just how he made istiwa over the Throne? Is it like how the Arabs say that such and such made istiwa over the bed so that the bed encompasses the person when he’s on it? So you have to say that the Throne encompasses Allah if He is over it because we cannot imagine anything over something except in this way.”

 

In order to explain this is should be said to him: “As for your saying “how does he make istiwa ?” Then “how?” cannot be applied to Allah, for He has informed us that He made istiwa over the Throne and He did not inform us of how he made istiwa ’.

 

So it is obligatory for the believers to believe in their Lord and His istiwa ’ over the Throne and it is forbidden for them to describe how he made istiwa’. This is because He did not inform them how He did that and the eyes in this worldly life did not see it to describe what they saw. He also forbade the believers from saying  about Him that which they do not know, so they are to believe in His istiwa ’ and then refer knowledge of how he made istiwa’ unto Allah.

 

[Transmitted from him by Shaykh ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah in: Bayan Talbees al-Jahmiyyah (KSA Government Print: 1391 AH, 1st

Edn., ed. Muhammad bin ’AbdurRahman bin Qasim), vol.2, p.343 and Naqd ut-Ta’sees,

(Madeenah, KSA: Maktabat ul-’Uloom wa’l-Hikam, 1424 AH, ed. Musa ad-Duwaysh), p.16.]

 

 

6. Imam al Hafidh ibn Rahawayh Ishaq bin Ibraheem al Handhali (d.238AH/852CE)

 

He said:

 

It is not permissible to enter into the affair of AllAh as it is permissible to enter into the action of the creation based on what AllAh says,

 

“He is not questioned about what He does, but they will be questioned.”{al-Anbiy (21): 23}

 

 

And it is not permissible for anyone to imagine Allah and His Attributes and Actions as it is permissible to reflect and view the affair of creation.

 

Allah can be described as descending in this last third of every night to the heaven of the dunya but it is not to be asked “how is His descending” because the Creator does what He wills as He wills.

 

[Relayed by Abu Ismaeel al-Harawi  in Dhamm ul-Kalam wa Ahluhu, vol.4, p.325.]

 

 

7. Imam Ahlus Sunnah Ahmed bin Hanbal (d241AH/855CE)

 

He stated in his book Radd ’ala’l-Jahmiyyah wa’z-Zanadiqah:

 

 

And he (i.e. Jahm) interpreted the Qur’an in a way other than which it is to be interpreted and he denied ahadeeth of the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ’alayhi wassallam). He also claimed that whoever describes Allah with something which Allah Himself described Himself with in His Book, or with what the Messenger of Allah narrated from Him, is a disbeliever and from the Mushabbihah (those who resemble Allah to the creation)…

[Ar-Radd ’ala’l-Jahmiyyah wa’z-Zanadiqah, p.104 ]

 

 

 

He also said:

So we say to them: Allah is the One who arranged the affairs and He is the One who spoke to Musa, they say: “He did not speak to him and does not speak, because speech is only done with limbs and limbs are to be negated from Allah.” So if an ignorant person was to hear their (Jahm ) statements he would think that they are the most fervent in glorifying Allah and the ignorant person will not realise that their words lead to misguidance and kufr and will not sense that they do not say what they do except as a false claim about Allah.

[Ibid., p.104 ]

 

Imam Ahmad also said in ‘Bab ma  Ankarat al-Jahmiyyah min an yakun Allah kallama Musa’ [Chapter:  The Jahmiyyah Rejected that Allah Spoke to Musa ]:

 

 

We say: why do you reject that?

 

They sayAllah did not speak and does not speak, rather He formed something which was an expression from Allah and He created a voice which was heard” and they also claimed that speech is only with a mouth, tongue and lips.

 

We say: is it permissible for that which was formed, or other than Allah, to say:

“O Musa , indeed I am your Lord”

{TaHa (20): 11-12}?

 

 

Then Imam Ahmad said

 

As for their saying: “Speech is not done except with a mouth, tongue and lips” then did not Allah say to the heavens and the earth

 

“Come [into being], willingly or by compulsion.” They said, “We have come willingly.””

{Fussilat (41): 11}?

 

Do you think that they said that with a mouth, tongue, lips and limbs?

 

Imam Ahmad also said:

 

“And We subjected the mountains to exalt [Us], along with David…”

{al-Anbiy (21): 79}

 

Do you think that they exalted Allah with a mouth, tongue and lips? And as for limbs then they will testify against the disbeliever,

“And they will say to their skins, “Why have you testified against us?” They will say, “We were made to speak by Allah, who has made everything speak…”

{Fussilat (41): 21}

 

Do you think that they will speak with a mouth, tongue and lips?

 

However, Allah made them speak how He wills and He speaks how He wills without saying that this is done with a mouth, tongue and lips.

[Ibid., pp.130-131 ]

 

 

Imam Ahmad also said in Risalat us-Sunnah which was transmitted by ’Abdus bin Malik al-’Attar:

 

There is no analogy in the Sunnah and no similitude to be put forth, it is neither understood by intellects nor desires, rather it is to be followed and desires are to be abandoned.

 

This from him, may Allah have mercy on him, invalidates making an analogy between the Creator and creation in regards to what Allah described Himself with, and that it is obligatory to submit to that without analogy of His Attributes to that of the creation.

 

 

8. Abu Zurah ar Razi Ubaydullah bin Abdul Kareem al Qureshi al Makhzumi (d. 264AH/878CE)

 

He said:

 

 

 

 

 

The Mu’attilah who negate are those who deny the AllAh’s Attributes that He described Himself with in His Book and based on the tongue of His Prophet (sallAllAhu ’alayhi wassallam). They also deny the authentic narrations which have arrived from the Messenger of AllAh (sallAllAhu ’alayhi wassallam) in regards to AllAh’s Attributes. They falsely interpret AllAh’s Attributes according to  their void opinions which conform to the misguidance that they believe in. They ascribe the narrators of the narrations (which affirm Allah’s Attributes) as having made tashbeeh. So whoever ascribes those who describe their Lord, Blessed and Exalted, with what AllAh Himself describes Himself with in His Book and based on what His Prophet (sallAll hu ’alayhi wassallam) said, without tamtheel and tashbeeh, to tashbeeh is a negating Mu’attil. This is what the people of knowledge stated about them, such as ’Abdullah bin al-Mubarak and Waki’ bin al-Jarah.

 

[Mentioned by Abu’l-Qasim at-Taymi in al-Hujjah fi Bayan il-Mahajjah (Riyadh, KSA: Dar ur-Rayah, 1411 AH,1st Edn., ed. Muhammad bin Rabi ’ al-Madkhali ), vol.1, p.178]

 

 

We mentioned beforehand that of the signs of the Jahmiyyah Mu’attilah is that they call those who affirm Allah’s Attributes as being Mushabbihah; we have transmitted the statement of Imam Ahmad, Ishaq, Abi Hatim and others.

 

 

9. Imam Abu Muhammed Abdullah bin Muslim bin Qutaybah ad Dinawari (d.276/889CE)

 

 

He said in his refutation of the false interpretations of the Jamhiyyah and Mu’tazilah:

 

And they say about laughter: “It is like when the Arabs say ‘the earth laughed with plants’” when the earth blossoms with flowers and vegetation; and “the clouds laughed when the lightning flashed”there is nothing in these meanings except that ‘laughter’ here means ‘to bring about’ (or ‘to cause to happen’).”

 

(We say): If the laughter which they fled from is tashbeeh with people, then within these meanings is also tashbeeh.

[Ibn Qutaybah, al-Ikhtil f fi’l-Lafdh wa’r-Radd’ala’l-Jahmiyyati wa’l-Mushabbihah (Beirut: Dar ul-Kutub al-’Ilmiyyah, 1405 AH,1st Edn.) p.39.]

 

 

10. Imam Al Allamah al Hafidh an Naqid Uthman bin Saeed ad Darmi (d.280 AH/893CE)

 

 

He said:

 

As for your saying “the how (kayfiyyah) of these Attributes and making tashbeeh of them with what exists in creation is an error.

 

Yet we do not say: “It’s an error” as you say, rather according to us it is kufr! In regards to the how (kayfiyyah) of the Attributes and making tashbeeh of them with what exists in creation then we are much stricter than you! Except that we do not make tashbeeh of the Attributes, takyeef (ask “how?”) about the Attributes, disbelieve in the Attributes, deny the Attributes and we do not deem the Attributes to be batil with misguide false interpretations.

 

 

 

Then Imam ad-Darimi said:

 

It is not permissible to make ijtihad with opinions in regards to many of the obligatory actions and rulings that we see with our eyes and hear with our ears, then how can it be allowed in regards to the Attributes of Allah which eyes neither see nor can comprehended by thoughts.

[Imam ’Uthman bin Sa’eed ad-Darimi , ar-Radd ’ala’l-Marees (Riyadh, KSA: Maktabat ur-Rushd, 1418 AH, 1st Edn., ed. Rasheed al-Alma’ ), vol.1, pp.219-220]

 

 

Imam ad-Darimi also said:

 

If we are Mushabbihah according to you, even though we single out Allah as the one true God worthy of worship with Attributes which we have taken from His Book and we have described Allah with what He has described Himself with in His Book – then in your claim Allah Himself would be the first of the those who are Mushabbihah! And then His Messenger who informed us of His Attributes would also be from the Mushabbihah! Therefore, do not oppress your own selves and do not feign knowledge when you are ignorant of it, for the title (that you have ascribed to us) about tashbeeh is distant (from us).

[Ibid., vol.1, pp.302-303 ]

 

 

He also said:

 

As for your harsh condemnation of those believers who affirm Allah’s Attributes as being “those who are deluded and believe that the Attributes are composed of limbs and body parts” then your claim about them is falsehood. In fact, you are the people who are the most well-known for intending that!

 

[Translator’s note: This is a superb observation by Imam ad-Darimi (rahimahullah), for it is common to hear the contemporaries who have been influenced by Jahmi rhetoric saying “yes, but a Hand means a limb”, so hereby they themselves have already compared Allah to His creation! ]

 

 

The people who affirm the Attributes affirm that which you deny and they do not presume about the Attributes except whatever Allah and His Messenger meant, and they do not claim that He has limbs or bodily parts as you claim about them. Yet you have no shame in condemning them with lies in order to promote your misguidance among the ignorant people.

[ar-Radd ’ala’l-Marees , vol.1, pp.374-375]

 

 

He also said:

 

As for your claim that “going from place to place is an attribute of creation” then we do not ask “how?” about Allah’s Coming more than what He Himself mentioned in His Book and then what was described by His Messenger (sallAll hu ’alayhi wassallam).[ Ibid., vol.2, p.280 ]

 

 

He also said:

 

Then you (O Jahmi ) did not suffice with this false interpretation until you claimed that a people from Ahl us-Sunnah interpreted Allah’s Laughter according to what their minds from their own selves thought. This is a lie against them, for we have not heard of any of them comparing the Actions of Allah with the actions of the creation. However, we say that He Laughs as He wills in accordance to what befits Him, while your tafseer is to be discarded.

 

[ Ibid., vol.2, p.780 ]

 

 

More to come inshaAllah in Part 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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