Home > Ash'ariyyah | Jahmiyyah | Mu'tazilah > Narrations from the Salaf concerning what necessitates Allah’s Attributes does not necessitates the creations Attributes.|Part3| {Book: The ’Ash’aris: In the Scales of Ahl us-Sunnah}

Narrations from the Salaf concerning what necessitates Allah’s Attributes does not necessitates the creations Attributes.|Part3| {Book: The ’Ash’aris: In the Scales of Ahl us-Sunnah}

Narrations from the Salaf concerning what necessitates Allah’s Attributes does not necessitates the creations Attributes.

11. Imam Abu Jafar Muhammed Bin Jareer at-tabari.( d. 310AH/922CE)

He said:

We affirm all of these meanings which we have mentioned that have arrived in the narrations, the Book and the Revelation from which the reality of affirmation (of the Attributes) is understood. We negate tashbeeh (resembling Allah to creation) and we say: Allah, Mighty and Majestic, Hears voices, neither due to having an earlobe nor via limbs as Bani adam has limbs.

Likewise, Allah Sees people with sight which does not resemble the sight of Bani  adam who have limbs. Allah has Two Hands and Fingers and they are not limbs, however His Two Hands are Outstretched with blessings upon His creation, His Two Hands do not withhold from good. His Face is not like the limbs that Bani  adam have which are comprised of flesh and blood. And we say: Allah Laughs to whom He wills from His creation and we do not say “this is done by putting the teeth together”. And every night He descends to the heavens of the dunya.

[at-Tabseer, pp.141-145]







12. Abu Abdullah Ubaydullah bin Muhammed al Ukbari al hanbali ibn Battah ( d. 384/ 994 CE)

He said in his refutation of those who falsely interpret the descent of Allah:
The Mu’attil says “If we say He descends then we are saying that He comes down and Allah does not come down, and if He was to descend then He would go down because everything that descends is that which goes down.”

We say:

Are you not those who claim that you negate tashbeeh (comparing Allah to creation) from the Lord of the Worlds? Yet here, with this speech, you have made the vilest form of tashbeeh. The much worse difference is that you have rejected the narrations and denied the hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ’alayhi wassallam) and what he said. If you say that He does not descend except by “coming down” then you have  compared Allah to His creation. And you have claimed that He is unable to descend without coming down in the description of the creation which if in a place is in need of that place. Rather, we believe our Prophet (sallAllahu ’alayhi wassallam) when he said: “Our Lord descends” and we do not say: “He goes down” rather He descends how He wills and we do not describe this as His coming down (as creation does) and we do not ascribe a limit to Him and we do not say “His descent is His going down.”

[Ibn Battah, al-Ibanah ’an Sharee’at il-Firqat in-N jiyah wa Majanibat il-Firaq al-Madhmumah (Riyadh, KSA: Dar ur-Rayah, 1418 AH, 1 s t Edn., ed. Al-Waleed Sayf un-Nasr), vol.3, pp.239-240].
He also said:
And they (the Mu’attilah) say: “We do not say that Allah has Two Hands because hands are not but they have fingers, a palm, a wrist, forearms etc.” So according to their claim they fled from tashbeeh yet they fell into it and went towards it. All that they claim is that “these are attributes of the creation from which Allah is Exalted” because the Hand of Allah has no how-ness and Allah deemed them as liars as did the Messenger.

[Ibid., vol.3, p.314]

13. Imam al Hafidh Abu Abdullah Muhammed bin Ishaq bin Mndah( d. 395AH/ 1005CE)
He said:
Allah says,
“He has decreed upon Himself mercy.”
{al-Anam (6): 12}
The Prophet (sallAllahu ’alayhi wassallam) said: “Allah says: “I have made haram dhulm upon Myself.”” The Prophet (sallAllahu ’alayhi wassallam) explain what Allah said: “Verily Allah has decreed upon himself that “Indeed My Mercy precedes My Anger.””
So he explained the intent of Allah in regards to what Allah informed about Himself, Allah explained that He was Eternal while the creation is finite. His Essence is not to be described except with what He described and with what the prophet (sallAllahu ’alayhi wassallam) described Him with.
[ Ibn Mandah, at-Tawheed (Madeenah, KSA: Maktabat ul-’Uloom wa’l-Hikam, 1423 AH, 1 st Edn., ed. Dr ’Ali  bin Na sir al-Faqihi ), vol.3, pp.7-9 ]
14. Imam Abu Abdullah Muhammed bin Abdullah bin Abi Zamanayn al Andalusi (d. 399 AH/ 1009CE)
He mentioned the Attributes of AllAh such as Face, Two Hands, Light, Speech and the likes and then said:
These Attributes of our Lord which He described Himself with in His Book, and what His prophet described Him with, then within none of them are there to be any limitations, likening (to creation) or estimation. Glory is to He Who there is nothing like and He is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.
[ Ibn Ab Zamanayn, Usool us-Sunnah (Madeenah, KSA: Maktabat al-Ghurab ’ al-Athariyyah, 1415 AH, 1 st Edn., ed. ’AbdullA h al-BukhArI), p.74 ]
15. Imam Al Muqri al Muhaddith Abu Umar Ahmad Bin Muhammad al Talamanki ( d. 429 AH/1038CE)
Ahl us-Sunnah say about AllAh’s saying,
“The Most Merciful [who is] above the Throne established.”
{TaHa(20): 5}
Allah’s establishment over His Throne is real (’ala’l-haqeeqah) and not metaphorical/allegorical (la ala’l-majaz). A people from the Mu’tazilah and the Jahmiyyah that it is not permissible to name Allah with these names in a real sense (‘ala’l-haqeeqah) because the creation also has these names.
So they negated from Allah the realities of His names and affirmed them for His creation. If they are asked what caused them to deviate in this way? They will say: “agreement in name obligates tashbeeh.”

We say:

this is diverting from the language which we were addressed with, as what makes sense in the language is that similarity in language is not attained in naming. Making tashbeeh of things is only in regards to things which are the same or in forms such as white with white, black with black, tall with tall, small with small. So if the Names (of Allah) obligate similarity (with the creation) then everything would be compared with each other due to the comprehensiveness of the name of a thing with something else and due to the generality of naming things.

So we ask them: “Do you say that Allah exists? If they say “yes”, then say to them: “Your claim necessitates therefore that you have compared (Allah) to things which also ‘exist’!” If they say “He  Exists yet His Existence does not obligate a comparison between Him and other extant things”, then we say: “This, He (Allsh) is Living, Knowing, Willful, Able, Hearing, Seeing and He Speaks, which means that this does not necessitate comparing Him with those who have also been described as having these attributes.
[ This was transmitted from the Imam by: Shaykh ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah in: Dara’ at-Ta’arud al-’Aql wa’n- Naql (1 st Edn., 1399 AH, ed. Muhammad Rashad Salim), vol.5, p.251; Bayan Talbees il-Jahmiyyah, vol.2, p.38; Naqd ut-Ta’sees, p.115 and Majmu ’ al-Fatawa (Compiled by ’AbdurRahman bin Muhammad bin Qasim an-Najd and supervised by the General Office of Affairs of the Two Noble Sanctuaries), vol.5, p.519. Also transmitted by: Ibn ul-Qayyim, as-Sawa’iq ul-Mursalah (Riyadh, Dar ul-’ simah, 1418 AH, 3 r dEdn., ed. Dr ’Ali ad- Dakheelullah), vol.4, p.1284; adh-Dhahabi , al-’Uluww, p.246 ]
16. Shaykh al Islam Hafidh Abu Nasr Ubaydullah bin Saeed as Sijzi ( d444AH/1052CE)
He said in the book al-Ibanah:
The principle which has to be known is that: agreement in naming does not obligate agreement of the things being named, so if we say: “Allah Exists, is Kind, One, Living, Knowing, Hearing, Seeing and Speaks” then that is not tashbeeh and none of the Salaf or Imams oppose us. Rather Allah, Exists and is still One, Living, Eternal, Knowing, Hearing, Seeing and Speaking, so it is not permissible for Him to be described with the opposite of these Attributes...so whatever that is applied to the creation is not tashbeeh with the Creator because the agreement is only in the names of these attributes.

[ This was transmitted from the Imam by: Shaykh ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah in Dara’ at-Ta’arud, vol.5, pp.90-92 ]









17.  Al Imaam al Allaamah Hafidh ul Maghrib Abu Umar Bin Abdullah bin AbdulBarr al Andalusi al Qurtubi al Maliki (d. 463AH/ 1071CE)

He said after narrating the hadeeth of the slave-girl who the Prophet (sallAllahu ’alayhi wassallam) asked: “Where is Allah?” She replied: “Above the heavens.” The Prophet (sallAllahu ’alayhi wassallam) said, “Free her, for she is a believer”:
As for those who use as a proof: “If He is in a place that would be tashbeeh with the creation because whatever is encompassed by places is encompassed by the creation” – this is something which is not binding and has no meaning to it. For there is nothing from the creation which is like Allah and there should be no analogy between Allah and His creation. He is neither comprehended by analogy and nor is He to be made analogous with people. There is no god worthy of worship except He, He was before everything and then He created places, the heavens, the earth and whatever is between them. He remains after everything and He created everything and has no partner.
It is authenticated by common sense and verified with succinctness based on evidence that He is in eternity neither in a place nor non-existent, so how can He be made analogous with His creation? And how can tamtheel and tashbeeh be made between Him and creation? Exalted is Allah Who is Elevated and Mighty from what the oppressors say. Nothing from His description is known about except what He described about Himself or based on what His Prophet and Messenger (sallAllahu ’alayhi wassallam) described Him with, or what the upright Ummah has agreed on about Him.

[ Ibn ’AbdulBarr, at-Tamheed (Morocco: Wiz rat ’Umoom ul-Awq f, 1387 AH, eds. Mustaf bin Ahmad al-’Alawand Muhammad ’AbdulKabeer al-Bakr ), vol.7, p.135 ]









18. Imam Al Hafidh Abul Qasim Ismaeel bin Muhammed at Taymi at Talhi al-AsSabahani (d 535 AH/ 1141CE).

He said:
Chapter: Refuting the Jahmiyyah who Reject the Attributes of Allah and Call Ahl us-Sunnah Mushabbihah –
The saying of Ahl us-Sunnah that Allah has a Face, Two Hands and all else that Allah informed of about Himself does not necessitate tashbeeh with His creation. Their narration of the hadeeth of the Prophet (sallAllahu ’alayhi wassallam): “Allah created Adam upon His image” – does not necessitate tashbeeh to be applied to them. Rather, all of what Allah informed about Himself and what His Messenger (sallAllahu ’alayhi wassallam) informed of is the truth. The saying of Allah is the truth and the saying of His messenger is the truth, Allah is more knowing about what He has said and His Messenger knows more about what He said. It is only upon us to have Iman and submit, sufficient is Allah for us and He is the Best disposer of affairs.

[ Al-Hujjah f Bayan il-Mahajjah, vol.1, pp.285-287 ]

Then he said in transmitting from some of Ahl us-Sunnah:
It is only necessary for the servants to submit because neither an Angel nor a Prophet knows the Attributes except by the Names that the Lord taught them. Neither intellects nor analogies can comprehend Allah’s Attributes, so the path is to affirm the understanding of His Attributes by following and submitting. As for the slander by the people of desires against Ahl us-Sunnah and accusing Ahl us-Sunnah of making tashbeeh if names agree then it is to be said about this: the matter is not as how they think! Because two things are not said to resemble each other only on account of the names in the language being similar, rather two things are said to resemble each other if they are intrinsically similar or resemble each other in understood meanings.
So if the matter was as how they think then everything would resemble each other just because of a similarity in the names of things.

[ Ibid., vol.2, p.452 ]








19. Imam Muwaffaquddin Abu Muhammed Bin Abdullah Bin Ahmad bin Qudamah al Maqdisi (d. 620 AH/ 1223CE).

He said in refuting those who deny the letter (harf) from All h’s Speech due to it allegedly necessitating limbs and body parts:
This would only be necessitated in regards to whoever speaks with limbs and body parts and Allah, Mighty and Majestic, is not to be described as having such things and this is making tashbeeh of Allah with His servants, wherein He is only perceived based on how His creation are and this is b til in and of itself.
[ Ibn Qudamah, al-Munadharah fi’l-Qur’an (Kuwait: Maktabat Ibn Taymiyyah, 1410 AH, 1 st Edn., ed. Muhammad al-Hamood an-Najd ), p.48 ]
20. Imam al Hafidh Shamsuddeen Muhammed bin Ahmed bin Uthman adh Dhahabi ( d748AH/ 1347 CE)
He transmitted:
’Abdullah ibn al-Imam Ahmad said in as-Sunnah: ’Abbas al-’Anbar reported to us: Shadh bin Yahya  reported to us: I heard Yazeed bin Haroon and it was said to him: “Who are the Jahmiyyah?He replied, “Whoever claims that Allah is Established over the Throne in a manner that opposes what has been affirmed by the hearts of the generality is a Jahmi !
Then adh-Dhahabi  said commenting on the above:
By “affirmed”: absorbed and the intent of “the generality” is the majority of the Ummah and the people of knowledge who have affirmed in their hearts what the verses indicate along with the certainty that He is Established over the Throne and there is nothing like unto Him. This is what is an established fact in their sound natures and minds and if there was a meaning behind that then
would have explained it and not neglected it. If any of them interpreted istiwa ’ then these transmissions would be available from them and if these were transmitted they would be well- known. So even if there are some foolish ignoramuses who understand that by istiwa ’ it necessitates a deficiency and an analogy between the creation and the Creator – then this is rarely the case.
Whoever would say this is to be reprimanded and taught and I do not think that anyone from the generality (of the ’Ulama) accepts this in himself (i.e. tashbeeh between the Creator and creation) and Allah knows best.
[ Adh-Dhahabi , al-’Uluww (Riyadh, KSA: Maktabat Adwa ’ us-Salaf, 1416 AH, 1stEdn., ed. Ashraf ’AbdulMaqsood), p.157 ]
Adh-Dhahabi  also said:
For descending, speech, hearing seeing, knowledge and istiwa ’ are clear and lucid expressions for the one who hears them. So if the One Who has nothing like Him (i.e. Allah) is described with these then how these Attributes are unknown to humans.

[ Ibid., p.214 ]










21. Al Hafidh AbdurRahman bin Ahmad bin Rajab al Hanbali ( d.795AH/ 1393 CE)

He stated after permitting using some of Allah’s Names such as as-Sami and al-Baseer:
As for those from the creation who are named with the Names of Allah such as as-Sami , al-Baseer, al-Qadeer, al-’Aleem and ar-Raheem then their ascription (to Allah) sever any partnership and likewise description.
So when we say: “Zayd hears and sees” this does not apply except as a description of the creation and when we see “Allah hears and sees” then this applies as His description which befits Him and so any resemblance in any aspect is ended, for this reason Allah says,
“Do you know of any similarity to Him?”
{Maryam (19): 65}
[ Transmitted from the book Manhaj ul-Hafidh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbal fi’l-’Aqeedah (Riyadh, KSA: D r us-Sam ’ ), p.356 ]
22. Imam Yusuf  bin AbdulHadi, aka Ibn ul Mabrad (d.909AH/ 1503CE)
He said:
As for affirming what Allah has described Himself with, or what His Messenger (described AllAh with), without ta’weel, then this is not tashbeeh. The ImAms of IslAm such as MAlik, Ahmad, ash- Shafi’ and others have indicated this.
Then he transmitted some words from Ibn ’As kir wherein he made ta’weel of Allah’s Attributes and said:
This speech leads to ta’teel in that he flees from what Allah has already affirmed for Himself via ta’weel based on the claim that “such and such necessitates such and such” and this is something which leaves no room for sense. As whatever Allah has affirmed for Himself, we affirm and this is not tashbeeh. We do not make any false figurative interpretation which thereby negate what is affirmed based on alleged tasbheeh, for this is stubbornness and contrary (to the truth).

[Jam’ ul-Juyush wa’d-Dasakir ’ala Ibn ’Asakir, pp.299-301 ]

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