Home > Ahlehadees/Salafi., Ahmed Ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimahullah), Aqidah, Ash'ariyyah | Jahmiyyah | Mu'tazilah, Bidah (Innovation), Shia, Sufism > A Brief history of the Innovated sects by Shaykh ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (D.728H)

A Brief history of the Innovated sects by Shaykh ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (D.728H)

 

“And know that most of the innovations connected to uloom (sciences) and acts of worship occurred in this Ummah at the end of the period (if the rightly-guided Khaleefahs; just as the Prophet (swallallahu alayhi wasallam) informed, when he said, ‘Those of you who live long after me will see a great deal of differences. So hold fast to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly -guided Khaleefaha after me…”

 

So when the period of the rightly-guided Khaleefaas had passed and the rule of kingship appeared, deficiencies appeared in the leaders, and therefore deficiency spread also to the people of knowledge and deen. So during the end of the rule of ‘Alee radiyallaahu ‘anhu the innovation of the Khawaarij (a) and Raafidah (b) appeared.
This being connected to the issue of leadership and khilafah, and that was connected to this from actions and Sharee’ah rulings.

 

The kingship of Mu’aawiyah radiyallaahu ‘anhu was a kingship of mercy. So when it passed, the rule of Yazeed came and fitnah (trials and discord) took place within it: the killing of al- Husayn in ‘lraaq, the fitnah of the people of Hurrah in Madeenah and the siege of Makkah when ‘Abdullaah ibn Zubair made his stand. Then Yazeed passed away and the Ummah split up. Ibn Zubair in Hijaaz, Banoo Hakam in Shaam (Syria, Jordan and Palestine) and the jump to power of Mukhtaar ibn Abee-Ubayd and others in ‘lraaq. All this took place at the end of the era of the Companions, when there only remained the likes of ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Abbaas, ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar, Jaahir ibn ‘Abdullaah, Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree and others. The innovation of the Qadariyyah (c) and the Murjiyah (d) then occurred, and it was refuted by those Companions who remained, as they had, along with others, refuted the innovations of the Khawaarij and the Raafidah. Indeed the status of the first three generations, by agreement of the majority, is the best and most just generations.

 

That which the Qadariyah mostly spoke about was related to the actions of the servants, as did the Murjiah. Their speech was concerned with issues of obedience and disobedience; the believer and the sinful one; and other similar related matters such as the names and the judgements, and promises and threats. Until then they had not spoken about their Lord, nor about His Attributes, except in the last period of the lesser Taabi’oon, this being the last period of the Umayyah rule, when the third generation – the atbaaut –Taabioon – began, and by which time most of the Taabioon had already passed away.

 

So the majority of the Companions had passed away by the end of the rule of the four rightly-guided Khaleefahs, until none remained from the people of Badr except a few.

 

The majority of the Taabi’oon had passed away in the last period of the younger Companions, during the reign of Ibn az- Zubair and ‘Abdul-Malik. The Majority of the third generation passed away in the last part of the Umayyah rule, at the
beginning of the ‘Abbaasee rule.

 
It then occurred that many of the offices of authority and power started to be occupied by the non-Arabs, whilst at the same time, many of the Arabs left the offices of power. Some of the non-Arab books were translated into Arabic: the books of the Persians, the Indians (Hindus) and the Romans.

 

Thus, what the Prophet (swallallahu alayhi wasallam) said appeared, “Then lies will become widespread, to such an extent that a person will testify and will not have been asked to do so, and will take an oath without being asked to do so.”

 
Then three matters occurred: ra’ee (opinion), Kalaam (philosophical speech and theology) and tasawwuf (sufism). The innovation of the Jahmiyyah (e) also occurred, which is negating and denying the Attributes of Allah.

 

______________________________________________________________

(a) The Khaawarij were

the first sect in Islaam to split from the way of the Prophet (swallallahu alayhi wasallam) and his Companions. They arose in the Khilaafah of ‘Alee, making Khurooj (rebellion) against him, before the arbitration between him and Mu’aawiyah radiyallaahu ‘anhu. From their false ‘aqeedah (beliefs) is: allowing rebellion against the legitimate Muslim ruler, whether pious or wicked, and declaring a Muslim to be a kaafir (disbeliever) due to commission of a major sin. They were described by the Prophet (swallallahu alayhi wasallam) as the ‘Dogs of Hellfire.’

Refer to: Maqalatul-Islaamiuyeen (1/168) of Abool Hasan al- Ash’aree, al-Bidaayah (8/22-24) of Ibn Katheer and Fathul-Baaree (12/282-302) of Ibn Hajr.

 

(b) The Raafidah (the Rejectors) are

an extreme sect of the Shee’ah who rejected Zayd ibn ‘Alee ibn al-Husayn due to his refusal to condemn Aboo Bakr and ‘Umar. They rapidly deteriorated in aqeedah, morals and deen – until the present day – where their beliefs are those represented by the Ithna Ashariyah Shee’ah of lraan. From their false beliefs are: declaring all but three to five of the Companions to he disbelievers, the belief that their inmans have knowledge of the Unseen past, present and future, considering the ulamahs to be one of the main pillars of eeman (faith) and they believe that the Quraan is incomplete.

Refer to: Maqalatul Islaamiyyeen (1/65), al-Farq baynal-Firaq (no. 21) of ‘Abdul Qaadir al-Baghdaadee and Talbees –lblees (pp. 94-100) of Ibn ul-
Jawzee.

 

(c) The Qadariyah are

the followers of Ma’bad ibn al-Juhanni, and from their false beliefs are: that Allah has no prior knowledge of anything until it comes into existence; that it is people, and not Allah, who are the creators of their own actions, denying ‘aqeedah’ (belief) in the Punishment of the Grave, and denying that the authentic hadeeh is an evidence for the ‘aqeedah’ unless it is related in mutawaatir form.

Refer to: al-Milal wan-Nihal (1/72) of ash – Shahrastanee and Sawnul – Mantaq wal – Kalaan of as-Suyutee.

 

(d) The Murjiah are

those who reject that actions are a part of eemaan (faith), and say that eemaan is affirmation of the heart and statement of the tongue only. The extreme amongst them limit eemaan to belief of the heart only. They also deny that eemaan increases and decreases.

Refer to: al-Maqalat (1/214) and al-Farq baynal-Firaq (p. 202).

 

(e) The Jahmiyyah are

the followers of Jahm ibn Safwaan, who unleashed upon this Ummah the horrific innovation of ta’teel (denial of Allaah’s Attributes)-either directly, or by twisting the meanings; such as twisting the meaning of the Hand of Allaah to mean His Power and Generosity. They also deny that Allaah is above His creation, above His Throne, as well as holding the belief that Paradise and Hellfire are not ever lasting.

Refer to: ar-Radd ‘alal-Jahmiyyah by Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal and also
ad-Daarimee and al-lbaanah: (p. 141) of Abul-Hasan al-’Asharee.

 

Related Link:

  • Who are the Ash’aris?

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