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Why only One God and not two or more than two gods? — Imam al-Tabari

September 11, 2017 Leave a comment

 

Our description has made it clear that the Creator and Originator of all things was before everything, that night and day and time and hours are originated, and that their Originator Who administers and manages them exists before them, since it is impossible for something to originate something unless its originator exists before it. (It is also clear that) God’s word:

“Don’t (the unbelievers) look at the camels (and reflect) how they were created, and at the heaven how it was raised, and at the mountains how they were set up, and at the earth how it was spread out flat? (Quran 88:17-20)

contains the most eloquent evidence and the most effective proofs for those who use reason to reflect and the mind to be instructed, that the Creator of all those things is eternal and that everything of their kind is originated and has a Creator that is not similar to them. That is because everything mentioned by our Lord in this verse, the mountains, the earth, the camels, is dealt with and administered by man, who may move it around and manage it, who may dig, cut, and tear down, none of which he is prevented from doing. Yet, beyond that, man is not able to bring anything of that into existence without a basis (to work from).

 

The conclusion is that the one who is incapable of originating those things could not have originated himself and that the one who is not prevented from managing and organizing whatever he wishes could not have been brought into existence by someone like himself and he did not bring himself into existence. Further, the One Who brought (man) up and gave him substantial (‘ayn) existence is the One Who is not incapable of (doing) anything He wishes, and He is not prevented from originating anything He wants. He is “God Unique and Forceful.” (Quran 12:39)

 

Someone might ask:

Why should it be disapprovable to assume that the things you have mentioned result from the action of two eternal (beings)?

The reply would be:

We disapprove of that because we find that the administration is continuous and the creation perfect. We say:

If the administrators were two, they would necessarily either agree or disagree. If they agree, the two would conceptually be one, and the one would be made two merely by positing two.

If they differ, it would be impossible to find the existence of the creation perfect and (its) administration continuous. For each one of two who differ does what is different from what his fellow does . If one gives life, the other causes death . If one of them produces existence, the other produces annihilation . It would thus be impossible for anything in creation to exist in the perfection and continuity it does.

God’s words: “If there were other gods except God in (heaven and earth), both would be ruined. Praised be God, Lord of the Throne, (who is above) what they describe“; (Quran 21:22) and: “God has not taken to Himself a child , and there has been no god together with Him. Otherwise, each god would have gone off with what he created and risen over the others. Praised be God (who is above) what they describe. He knows what is unseen and what is observable, and He is exalted above their associating (other gods with Him)” (Quran 23:91) -these words of God are the most eloquent evidence and the most concise explanation as well as the most effective proof for the falsehood of those falsehood-mongers who associate (other gods) with God.

 

That is because, if there were another god except God in the heavens and the earth, the condition of the two as to agreement and disagreement would necessarily be the one I have described. Saying that there may be agreement implies that saying they are two is wrong. It confirms the oneness of God and is an absurd statement in as much as the one who makes it calls the one two. Saying that there may be disagreement indicates ruin for the heavens and the earth, as our Lord says : “If there were other gods except God in them, both would be ruined.” (Quran 21:22) For if one originates and creates something, it would be the other’s business to put it out of existence and invalidate it. That is because the actions of two who differ are different, just as fire that warms and snow that cools what fire has warmed.

 

Another argument (would be this):

If it were (true) as those who associate other gods with God say, each one of the two whom they consider as eternal would necessarily be either strong or incapable.

 

If both were incapable , each one, being incapable, would be defeatable and not be a god.

 

If both were strong, each one of them, by virtue of being incapable of subduing the other, would be incapable and being incapable would not be a god.

 

If each one of them were strong enough to subdue the other, he, by virtue of the strength of the other to subdue him in turn, would be incapable. God is above the association of other gods with Him!

 

It has thus become clear that the Eternal One, the Creator and Maker of all things is the One Who existed before everything and Who will be after everything, the First before everything and the Last after everything. He existed when there was no momentary and extended time, no night and no day, no darkness and no light except the light of His noble face, no heaven and no earth, no sun and no moon and no stars. Everything but He is originated, administered and made. He alone by Himself created everything without an associate, helper, and assistant . Praised be He as powerful and forceful!

 

[The history of al-Tabari, vol. 1, pg. 218-220]

 

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Hijab (Niqab)- Why? — Dr. Bilal Philips

April 15, 2017 Leave a comment

 

The covering of Muslim women has become one of the international symbols of female oppression in feminist circles.

 

1.

There are two major trends which have developed in the West over the past century. On one hand, the fashion industry has systematically unclothed women. From being fully clothed from head to toe at the turn of the century, she now wears virtually nothing when the weather permits.

 

On the other hand there has been a dramatic rise in the reported incidents of rape. In the USA in the early 90s the reported incidents of rape had crossed the 100,000 mark. And researchers estimated that the actual number was between 7 to 10 times that number since most women are shy to report rapes. The two trends are closely interrelated.

 

The woman in the West has become a sex-object with which to sell products thereby pumping up the sexual tension of the society. The Corvette is not sold based on its powerful engine or its special features, instead the car is displayed with a model in a bikini lying on it. Similarly, a new Gillette razor blade is not sold by giving details about its new titanium blades. Instead, a man is shown in ads shaving with a woman’s hand with long red fingernails coiled around hold his. The subliminal message being taught is: You buy the car, you get the girl. You buy the razor, you get the girl. 

 

2.

Islam prescribes the covering of females for two primary reasons stated in the Quran. God says in Soorah al-Ahzaab (33: 59):

Let them cast their outer garments over their bodies. That is best in order that they be known and not harmed.

 

3.

The hijab is to make the Muslim woman known in the society as a virtuous and honorable woman. Her hijab makes the statement that she is not available and not interested in any immorality. Many Muslim women who have emigrated to the West take of their scarves and outer garments because they claim it draws attention to themselves. If they expose their hair and dress in modest western dresses no one will look at them.

 

It is true that the hijab does provide a level of anonymity, as many of the woman’s physical details will be hidden. However, the intent is not to prevent men from looking. When men see a nun in her habit, fully covered like a Muslim woman in full hijab, they will turn their heads and stare at her. Similarly, when they see a woman walking in a bikini, they will also turn their heads and stare. However, the first stare is different from the second. The first is out of curiosity, having seen something unusual, while the second is out of lust and aroused sensuality. The consequence of the second is the molestation of women on a national scale while the first causes respect.

4.

The penalty in the Islamic state is very severe for rape in order to further guarantee protection for females. Where weapons of any type are used in the rape, the punishment is death. The death penalty has also been introduced in Philippines and it is being called for in India currently. However, to allow women to expose themselves and then kill those who react unduly is not practical. The law should be balanced. The circumstances, which might encourage rape, should first be removed from the society, then a severe penalty may be enacted.

 

5.

It may be said that even in societies where women are fully covered, they may still be approached and molested. However, if the vast majority of those who are molested are not properly covered, the principle of protection still applies. Even in the society of the Prophet, one thousand four hundred years ago, some women were molested and raped.

 

6.

Some people question the imposition of hijab by the Islamic state. Is it a personal choice of women or a legal obligation? It is the responsibility of the head of every family to insure that the women of his household leave the home in a legally acceptable state of dress. The state is further responsible to prevent any women who appear in public in a state of undress in order to protect public dignity and morality.

 

The West has set its own limits for dress which change according to the mood of society. At one point in time, strip joints were illegal. Now many bars have topless waitresses and dancers. In most states, a woman may not appear in public topless. However, a woman recently contested the law in Florida and won her case. Complete nudity remains public crime throughout the West, though nudist camps and nudist beaches have sprung up in different locations in Europe and America.

 

7.

There are conditions which must be fulfilled for the hijab to be acceptable. a) It should be wide and loose so as to not show the shape of the woman’s body; b) it should be made of thick material which will not reveal what is underneath; c) It should not be colorful and ornamented so as to attract sexual admiration.

 

8.

Where the hijab has become a cultural norm and women comply out of fear of embarrassment, it will not be worn properly. It may become transparent, or worn tight exposing the curves of the body, or it may become so ornamented as to be attractive by itself. It may be short so as to expose the dress underneath, or the face may be covered and the front of the hair exposed. Such practices are the result of women wearing hijab for the wrong reasons. They should be educated to realize that it is for their benefit and for the benefit of the society.

 

[From the book: Contemporary issues, pg. 12-14]

 

Answering claims that Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) composed the Quran helped by Jewish & Christian sources

March 18, 2017 Leave a comment

 

We come now to an oft-repeated charge, namely that the Prophet (ﷺ) composed the Quran either with direct help from others, after reading books (despite the constantly reiterated fact of his illiteracy), or after being taught by someone of Jewish or Christian background. Like those other charges, these particular ones were again reiterated in the Middle Ages as well as more recently. Once more, it has to be pointed out that far from being original to this period these assertions were actually levelled by infidels in the lifetime of Mubammad (ﷺ) as reponed in the Quran itself in which they are challenged, (10:38; 11:13; 16:103).

 

Ibn Taymiyah makes the point that Muhammad (ﷺ), before reaching the age of forty never preached, nor could he utter a passage of the Quran which is clearly distinct even from his own speeches and sayings.

 

Had Muhammad (ﷺ) in fact learnt from a Christian monk, a bishop, a Jewish person, or even from Christian slaves, the following might have happened:

 

    1. Muhammad (ﷺ) would never have denied it because he was famous all his life for both preaching and telling the truth.

 

2. He could never have preached a faith so radically different from Christianity and Judaism, particularly with respect to their basic creeds.

 

3. Under the circumstances, and considering the climate of antagonism existing between him and those who did not believe in his message, particularly the Jews and polytheists, his teacher’s name could scarcely have remained unknown throughout all the years of the Prophet’s mission.

 

4. Whoever taught him would surely have written a book or at least a chapter similar to the Quranic revelations.

 

5. The Jews, referred to in the Quran as “The people of the Book” had been persistently cross-examining him, defying him and hiding their books from others. How then could they have taught him at the same time? If they had taught him anything would they not have been the first to declare it in order to disprove his prophethood? It is difficult to believe that they would not also have been careful to suppress the uncomplimentary references to them contained in the Quran.

 

6. Had Muhammad (ﷺ) not been sincere in his prophethood and honest in delivering his revelations his friends and followers would never have been so devoted to him, nor would they have clung to his teachings despite devastating hardship and persecution. It is a remarkable tribute to the character of Muhammad (ﷺ) and to those of his friends and followers that not one of them ever betrayed him.

 

7. The Quran confirms certain biblical records of previous prophets. Since the historical events in the Bible were originally revealed by God to Moses and other prophets why could not this confirmation be a sign that the source is one, and divine?

 

8. If divine authorship has never been claimed for the Bible by a Christian why should Muhammad (ﷺ) have risked additional persecution from his enemies by claiming the Quran to have been revealed by God if this were not so?

 

Allah refuted all such claims in a simple sentence by saying :

And We certainly know that they say, “It is only a human being who teaches the Prophet.” The tongue of the one they refer to is foreign, and this Qur’an is [in] a clear Arabic language.

[Quran 16:103]

 

[Source: Book “The Sublime Quran and the Orientalist”, pg 33-34]

 

 

 

Was the Quran contrived from previous scriptures?

November 2, 2014 Leave a comment

 

1- Had the Qur’an been contrived from previously revealed scriptures, Muhammad’s [sallallahu alaihi wasallam] adversaries would not have ignored the matter and remained silent. They would undoubtedly have seized the opportunity to accuse him to that effect. All their allegations were unfounded and lacked proof. The Qur’an itself has already mentioned these allegations and their refutations.

 

2- The Qur’an includes many laws, rulings, instructions, and commands which did not exist in the previous scriptures. Furthermore, the Qur’an contains narratives with detailed accounts of previous generations in addition to prophecies which were fulfilled. An example of this was the final outcome of the conflict between the Romans and the Persians, the events of which were unknown to Muhammad, his people, or the followers of Judaism and Christianity.

 

3- The Qur’an urged people to acquire knowledge and to respect the human mind and intellect. Accordingly, based on Islam’s new teachings and rulings, the Muslims were able, in a very short time, to establish a civilization which replaced the preceding civilizations and flourished for many centuries. Had the Qur’an been compiled from the previous divine religions, why then did these religions not include the aforementioned precepts and teachings and did not play the same role as Islam?

 

 

4- The Qur’an is a Book whose style is consistent and eloquent. Had it been compiled from other scriptures it would have been incoherent, contradictory, and inconsistent due to the alleged various sources.

“…Had it been from other than God, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy.” [4/82]

 

Moreover, the Qur’an always addresses one’s sense and reasoning and does not include fables or myths. It relies upon evidence and facts and demands the same of its adversaries:

“Produce your proof, if you are truthful”. [2/11 and 27/64]

This approach is considered a completely new approach and does not exist in any previous scripture.

 

 

5- It is evident that Islam completely rejected the evil beliefs of paganism, its way of life, and its brutal traditions and replaced them with true faith and a life of virtue. Where then is the Pagan culture that Islam has been falsely accused of adopting from Pre-Islamic Paganism?

 

The Creed of the Pious Predecessors In Regards to The Attributes of Allah

October 8, 2011 Leave a comment

All praise is for Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship, except Allah, Who Has no partners, Who is Attributed with Majestic and Perfect Attributes, Who is Free from all that is not befitting his Perfectness. And I bear witness that Muhammad is the slave and messenger of Allah, May Allah’s Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon him, his family and his companions.

 

The subject of the Divine Attributes and Names is one of the greatest requirements of Islam, and one of the most noble of all sciences, and one of the most critical in the minds of people. Great disputes have occurred in this subject, due to what the innovators invented by engaging and delving into Allah’s Essence, Names and Attributes.

 

The most dangerous of these innovations: what was invented by the Jahmiyyah, who attributed imperfections to Allah, and denying the Attributes of Perfection, which Allah Himself Affirmed for himself and which were affirmed for Him by the Prophet –Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam-. Then it was what the Mu`tazilah innovated, and other sects.

 

Many Muslims were affected by this innovation, and engaged in it, which caused them to divide, and caused the appearance of those who denied Allah’s Names and Attributes, those who denied His Attributes while affirming His Names, and those who affirmed His Names and some of His Attributes. There was also the condemned Tawil, and a lot of people were deviated due to these innovated methodologies, especially in the present era in which different cultures have mixed with each other, and the media is used to spread these beliefs. Also, in this era, the truth has become strange for some people, and logic is used in many branches of knowledge, away from Divine Revelation. Today the importance of the Names and Attributes of Allah, which increases the faith of a man and makes him aware of the Greatness of the Creator, has become less.

 

Here we will mention a brief introduction to the belief of the pious predecessors, and with Allah is success :

Know, May Allah Have Mercy upon you, that the pious Salaf and the Imams of Sunnah, were unanimous in their sayings about faith in Allah and testifying to His Unity, and that Allah is described by His Attributes mentioned in His Book (Qur’an) and the authentic sayings of His Messenger –Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam-. So they passed the texts as they came without distortion, denying them, speaking about their how-ness, or resembling them to creation.

 

The methodology of the Pious Predecessors in Allah’s Attributes has three foundations:

1. To affirm for Allah the Attributes that He or His Prophet –Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam- affirmed for Him.

To believe in them, and that Allah Praised Himself with these Names and Attributes. The evidence for this is His Saying: {He is All-Hearing and All-Seeing}, {Allah! No one has the right to be worshipped except He, the Ever-Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists} [2:255], {He is All-Knowing, All-Wise”}, {Ar-Rahman over the Throne Rose (Istawa)} [20:5], and many other ayat, and hadiths too.

– Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal said:

“We worship Allah with His Attributes as He described Himself … we do not exceed the Quran and Hadeeth. We say as He said, and we describe Him as He described Himself, and we do not exceed that. We believe in all of the Quran, the muhakam and the mutashabeh.” (1)

– Abdur-Rahman Bin Al-Qasim (d. 191 H.), the companion of Imam Malik, said:

“It is not permissible for anyone to describe Allah except with that which He described Himself with in the Quran, and one is not to resemble His (Allah’s) two Hands with anything, nor His Face with anything, but he is to say: ‘He (Allah) has two Hands as He described Himself in the Quran, and He has a Face as He described Himself’. He is to stop at what Allah described Himself with in The Book (Quran), there is no like to Him, nor a similar, he is Allah la ilaha illa huwa (no diety is worthy of worship but He) as He described Himself.” (2)

 

 

2. To believe that Allah is Free from any likeness to His creation.

The basis for this is the Saying of Allah –translation of the meaning-: {There is nothing like unto Him} [42:11], {Do you know of any who is similar to Him?} [19:65], {Nor is there to Him any equivalent.} [112:4]
– Ishaq bin Rahwaih (d. 238 H.) said:

“Tashbeeh (resembling/likening Allah to creation) is to say: ‘Hand like a hand” or ‘Similar to a hand’, or ‘Hearing like a hearing’ or ‘Similar to a hearing’, so if one says: ‘Hearing like a hearing or similar to a hearing’, then this is Tashbeeh. But if one says like Allah –The Exalted- said, Yad (Hand), Sam` (Hearing), and Basar (Sight), without saying: how, or saying: like a hearing or similar to a hearing, then this is not tashbeeh.” (3)

 

3. Not to delve into the kayfiyyah (How-ness; reality) of Allah’s Attributes which we have no knowledge of.

The evidence for this is His Saying –translation of the meaning-: {and they will never encompass anything of His Knowledge, except that which He Wills} [2:255].
– Wakee` Bin Al-Jarrah (d. 197 H.) said, regarding Allah’s Attributes:

“We submit to these Hadiths as it came, and we do not say: ‘How is this?’ nor ‘Why was this sent down?’ ” (4)

 

The Belief in the Attributes is the same as the Belief in the Essence

The belief of the Salaf and Ahl Assunnah in Allah’s Attributes is like their belief in His Essence.
Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi (d. 463 H.) :

“As for speech regarding the Attributes, then what has been reported in the authentic Sunan (books of Hadith), the way of the Salaf is to affirm them, and to carry them upon their dhahir (apparent meaning), and to deny (knowledge of) kayfiyyah (i.e. Their true nature, how they are) and to negate tashbeeh (likening or resemblance to creation) for them… and the principle in this matter is: That speaking about the Attributes is a branch of speaking about the Essence (Dhat), and thus follows it exactly and takes its example. So if it was known that the affirmation of the Lord (Rabb) of all the worlds is an affirmation of existence, and not the affirmation of the true nature (i.e. the how-ness, kayfiyyah of the Essence), it would be the same with the Attributes, it is an affirmation of their existence (that Allah does have these Attributes) and not affirmation of defining (their nature) and speaking of its kayfiyyah (how they are).” (5)

 

Abu Umar Muhammad bin Qudamah (6) (d. 607 H.) said in some verses of poetry:

And the saying regarding the Attributes O my brothers ** Is like that of the Essence, and knowledge with clearification (of the correct belief)
is to pass them on (affirm them) without disbelief ** without Tashbih or transgression (7)

 

Their belief in all of Allah’s Attributes was upon one method, they didn’t differ in their belief between the Attributes, they applied the same method to all of the Attributes:

– Al-Waleed bin Muslim said: “I asked Al-Awza`I, Ath-Thawri, Malik bin Anas, and Al-Layth bin Sa`d about the Hadeeths of Sifat (The Attributes), and they said: «Pass them on as they came.»
Sufyan Ibn `Uyaynah (d. 198 H.) said: «Everything that Allah described Himself with in the Quran, its interpretation is its recitation, without (asking) how, and without likening Him (to creation).» (8)

 

Tawil is the way of the Khalaf (Later generations after the time of the Salaf)

It has not been proven that any of the pious predecessors made tawil of the Attributes of Allah, nor distorted its meaning. Contrary to that, they were all agreed upon the creed to believe in them without tawil, and this is well-known from them, and many scholars have testified to this throughout the centuries. We will mention a few of these scholars:

Imam Tirmidhi (d. 270 H.) said in his Sunan:

“This is how it has been reported from Imam Malik, Sufyan bin `Uyainah and `Abdullah bin Mubarak, that they said about these narrations, ‘Pass them without getting into their ‘how-ness’’. This is the saying of the scholars of Ahl As-Sunnah Wal-Jama`ah. As for the Jahamiyah, then they rejected these narrations and said that this is tashbeeh [resembling Allah to His creation].
In more than one place in the Qur’an, Allah Mentioned His Yad (Hand), Basar (Sight) and Sam` (Hearing); The Jahamiyyah made tawil of these ayat, and interpreted it differently than how the people of knowledge interpreted it, and they said: Allah did not Create Adam with His Hand’, they said: ‘The meaning of yad (hand) here (meaning in the ayah [38:75]) is ‘power’ (quwwah).” (9)

Al-Husain Al-Baghawi (d. 516H.) said, after speaking about several ayat and hadiths regarding Allah’s Attributes:

“Upon this [creed] were the Salaf of this nation of Islam, and the scholars of Sunnah. They all received these with faith and acceptance, while avoiding likening Him to His creation or making Taweel, and rendering its knowledge [of how-ness] to Allah” (10)

 

Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi (d. 620 H.) said in his book “Lum`at Al-I`tiqad”:

“And upon this were the Salaf, and the Imams who came after them, may Allah Be Pleased with them; All of them were upon agreement on affirming and passing on the Attributes that are in the Book of Allah (Quran) and what was reported in the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah without making taweel of them.”
He also said in the same book, after mentioning several ayat and Hadeeth of Sifat (Attributes): “This, and what is similar to it, the Salaf were upon consensus on transmitting and accepting it, and they didn’t reject it, nor made taweel of it, nor resembled it to creation. “

This is just a sample of sayings of some of the scholars in different eras, and there are many others whom we did not mention.

Authoring on the Creed of the Pious Salaf

From the ones who authored books on the beliefs of the pious predecessors and narrated their sayings in this subject, in books of Tafsir of the Qur’an include:

`Abur-Razzaq As-San`ani, Ishaq bin Rahwaih, Baqi bin Mukhallad, `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Hatim, Ibn Jarir At-Tabari, Abu Bakr bin Al-Mundhir, Abu Bakr bin `Abdul-`Aziz, Abu Ash-Shaikh Al-Asfahani, Abu Bakr bin Merdawaih, and others.
All who are mentioned above passed away before 450 H.

And similarly those who mentioned them in books on “Sunnah”, “Refutation of Jahamiyah” and “Fundamentals of Religion”, some examples are:

* “Refutation of Jahamiyyah” by Muhammad `Abdullah Al-Ju`fi, the teacher of Imam Bukhari.
* “Khalq Af`al Al-`Ibad” by Al-Imam Al-Bukhari.
* “As-Sunnah” by Abu Dawud
* “As-Sunnah” by Abu Bakr Al-Athram
* “As-Sunnah” by Abdullah son of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal
* “As-Sunnah” by Hanbal bin Ishaq
* “As-Sunnah” by Abu Bakr Al-Khallal
* “As-Sunnah” by Abu Ash-Shaykh Al-Asfahani
* “As-Sunnah” by Abul-Qasim At-Tabarani
* “As-Sunnah” by Ibn Mandah
* “Usool As-Sunnah” by Ibn Abi Zamanin
* “Al-Sharee`ah” by Al-Ajurri.
* “Al-Usool” by Abu Umar At-Talmanki
* “Refuting the Jahmiyyah” by Uthman Ad-Darimi
* “Refuting the Jahmiyyah” by Ibn Mandah
* “Refuting the Jahmiyyah” by Ibn Abi Hatim
And many others. Some of the mentioned above are from the pious Salaf, and the rest were from the generations before 500 H.

The four Imams, the two Sufyans (Ath-Thawri and Ibn `Uyaynah), the two Hammads (ibn Zayd and ibn abi Salamah) and the two Ibn Abi Shaybah’s (Abu Bakr and Abu Ja`far), Abu Yusuf, Al-Layth b. Sa`d, Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasa’i, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, Al-‘Awza’ii, Ibn Abi Layla, Abu `Ubaid Al-Qasim bin Sallam, Ishaq bin Rahwaih, Abu Hatim Ar-Razi, Muhammad bin Nasr Al-Marwazi and many others were all on the same creed (aqeedah), upon the madhhab of the Pious Salaf.

We ask Allah to Benefit everyone from this site and Guide anyone who opposes the Book and Sunnah. Certainly, He is Able to Do that.
And May Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon Our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions.

 

(1) Narrated by Ibn Battah in “Al-Ibanah Al-Kubra”
(2) Narrated by Ibn Abi Zamanin in “Usool As-Sunnah” (p.75)
(3) Narrated by his student At-Tirmidhi in his Sunan (2/42).
(4) Narrated by Abdullah the son of Imam Ahmad in his book “As-Sunnah” (1/267) with a sahih chain.
(5) “Dham At-Tawil” by Ibn Qudamah (p.15) with a sahih chain; Siyar A`lam An-Nubala by Adh-Dhahabi (18/283) with a different sahih chain.
(6) The brother of Muwaffaq Ad-Deen Abdullah bin Qudamah, the Author of “Al-Mughni”, and “Lum`at Al-I`tiqad”.
(7) “Dhail Tabaqat Al-Hanabilah” by Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali (3/121)
(8) “Kitab As-Sifat” by Ad-Daraqutni (p.70)
(9) “Al-Jame` Al-Kabir” (Sunan At-Tirmidhi) (2/42-43)
(10) “Sharh As-Sunnah” by Al-Baghawi (1/170)

 

 

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