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Why only One God and not two or more than two gods? — Imam al-Tabari

September 11, 2017 Leave a comment

 

Our description has made it clear that the Creator and Originator of all things was before everything, that night and day and time and hours are originated, and that their Originator Who administers and manages them exists before them, since it is impossible for something to originate something unless its originator exists before it. (It is also clear that) God’s word:

“Don’t (the unbelievers) look at the camels (and reflect) how they were created, and at the heaven how it was raised, and at the mountains how they were set up, and at the earth how it was spread out flat? (Quran 88:17-20)

contains the most eloquent evidence and the most effective proofs for those who use reason to reflect and the mind to be instructed, that the Creator of all those things is eternal and that everything of their kind is originated and has a Creator that is not similar to them. That is because everything mentioned by our Lord in this verse, the mountains, the earth, the camels, is dealt with and administered by man, who may move it around and manage it, who may dig, cut, and tear down, none of which he is prevented from doing. Yet, beyond that, man is not able to bring anything of that into existence without a basis (to work from).

 

The conclusion is that the one who is incapable of originating those things could not have originated himself and that the one who is not prevented from managing and organizing whatever he wishes could not have been brought into existence by someone like himself and he did not bring himself into existence. Further, the One Who brought (man) up and gave him substantial (‘ayn) existence is the One Who is not incapable of (doing) anything He wishes, and He is not prevented from originating anything He wants. He is “God Unique and Forceful.” (Quran 12:39)

 

Someone might ask:

Why should it be disapprovable to assume that the things you have mentioned result from the action of two eternal (beings)?

The reply would be:

We disapprove of that because we find that the administration is continuous and the creation perfect. We say:

If the administrators were two, they would necessarily either agree or disagree. If they agree, the two would conceptually be one, and the one would be made two merely by positing two.

If they differ, it would be impossible to find the existence of the creation perfect and (its) administration continuous. For each one of two who differ does what is different from what his fellow does . If one gives life, the other causes death . If one of them produces existence, the other produces annihilation . It would thus be impossible for anything in creation to exist in the perfection and continuity it does.

God’s words: “If there were other gods except God in (heaven and earth), both would be ruined. Praised be God, Lord of the Throne, (who is above) what they describe“; (Quran 21:22) and: “God has not taken to Himself a child , and there has been no god together with Him. Otherwise, each god would have gone off with what he created and risen over the others. Praised be God (who is above) what they describe. He knows what is unseen and what is observable, and He is exalted above their associating (other gods with Him)” (Quran 23:91) -these words of God are the most eloquent evidence and the most concise explanation as well as the most effective proof for the falsehood of those falsehood-mongers who associate (other gods) with God.

 

That is because, if there were another god except God in the heavens and the earth, the condition of the two as to agreement and disagreement would necessarily be the one I have described. Saying that there may be agreement implies that saying they are two is wrong. It confirms the oneness of God and is an absurd statement in as much as the one who makes it calls the one two. Saying that there may be disagreement indicates ruin for the heavens and the earth, as our Lord says : “If there were other gods except God in them, both would be ruined.” (Quran 21:22) For if one originates and creates something, it would be the other’s business to put it out of existence and invalidate it. That is because the actions of two who differ are different, just as fire that warms and snow that cools what fire has warmed.

 

Another argument (would be this):

If it were (true) as those who associate other gods with God say, each one of the two whom they consider as eternal would necessarily be either strong or incapable.

 

If both were incapable , each one, being incapable, would be defeatable and not be a god.

 

If both were strong, each one of them, by virtue of being incapable of subduing the other, would be incapable and being incapable would not be a god.

 

If each one of them were strong enough to subdue the other, he, by virtue of the strength of the other to subdue him in turn, would be incapable. God is above the association of other gods with Him!

 

It has thus become clear that the Eternal One, the Creator and Maker of all things is the One Who existed before everything and Who will be after everything, the First before everything and the Last after everything. He existed when there was no momentary and extended time, no night and no day, no darkness and no light except the light of His noble face, no heaven and no earth, no sun and no moon and no stars. Everything but He is originated, administered and made. He alone by Himself created everything without an associate, helper, and assistant . Praised be He as powerful and forceful!

 

[The history of al-Tabari, vol. 1, pg. 218-220]

 

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Dhee Suwaiqatain Will Destroy Ka’bah – May Allah Disfigure him

June 30, 2017 Leave a comment

 

Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (radiAllahu anhu) related that he heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say,

“Dhu As-Suwaiqatain, who is from Habasha (Ethiopia), will destroy the Ka’bah; he will steal its jewels and remove from it its covering. It is as if I am looking at him – Usaili’an (one who has a receding hairline or who is bald), Ufaidi’an (having crooked joints). He will strike it with his Masaahiyah (a steel shovel) and his Mai’wal (a huge axe that is used to pierce through rocks).”

(Ahmad) This chain is good and strong.

 

Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (radiAllahu anhu) related that the Prophet (ﷺ) said,

“Leave Habasha (Ethiopia) alone so long as they leave you alone, for none shall remove the treasure of the Ka’bah except for Dhu As-Suwaiqatain, who is from Habasha.”

(Abu Daawood)

Ibn ‘Abbaas (radiAllahu anhu) related that the Prophet (ﷺ) said,

“It is as if I am looking at him — (he is) black and bowlegged. He will tear it (i.e. the Ka’bah) down, stone by stone.”

(Ahmad)

 

Abu Hurairah (radiAllahu anhu) related that the Prophet (ﷺ) said,

“Dhu As- Suwaiqatain is from Habasha; he will destroy the House of Allah (the Ka’bah).”

(Related by Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzaar) And Muslim related it through a different chain.

 

The definition of sincerity— Sh. Salih al-Munajjid

February 13, 2016 1 comment

 

Linguistically: It is extracted from the verb (Akhlas) whose source is (Ikhlaas), which means to make pure and not mixed with anything else.

 

This is why Chapter Al-Ikhlaas was given this name, because it emphasizes the Oneness of Allah and that He should be worshipped alone. Ibn Al-Atheer (rahimahullah) said:

“It was given this name because the one who recites it purifies his monotheism to Allah.”

The word Ikhlaas is the word of Tawheed (monotheism).

 

Al-Fayrooz Abaadi (rahimahullah) said:

“Akhlasa means to give up Riyaa’ (showing off) [i.e. offer worship purely for Allah].”

Al-Qaamoos Al-Muheet (797).

 

Al-Jurjaani (rahimahullah) said:

“Ikhlaas is to give up Riyaa’ when offering acts of worship.”

At-Ta’reefaat (28).

 

Technically: In Islamic terminology, the scholars defined it in different ways, and the following are the most important of these definitions:

Ibn Al-Qayyim (rahimahullah)  said:

“Ikhlaas is to purify one’s intention when worshiping Allah and devote the act purely for Him.”

Madaarij As-Saalikeen (91/2).

 

Al-Jurjaani (rahimahullah) said:

“Ikhlaas means to cleanse the heart from any defect or impurity that affects its purity.”

It was also said that Ikhlaas is to scrub away anything that affects its clarity.

At-Ta’reefaat (28).

 

Huthayfah Al-Mar’ashi (rahimahullah)  said:

“Ikhlaas is when the slave feels that performing a deed is the same for him whether he performs it in public or in seclusion.”

Al-Bayaan Fi Aadaab Hamalat Al-Qur’aan (13).

 

Others said:

“Ikhlaas is not to expect any reward from anyone for the deed you perform and to want anyone to see the deed except Allah.”

Madaarij As-Saalikeen (92/2).

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In addition to this, there are many other definitions, which were stated by the righteous Salaf, may Allah have mercy upon them, such as:

1. To perform the deed for Allah and not to join anyone with Him in the intention
2. To perform the deed without people noticing.

Madaarij As-Saalikeen (91-92/2).

 

A sincere person is the one who does not care if people stop caring or respecting him in return for reforming and purifying his heart and making it sound in the scale of Allah. Also, he does not like that people know about anything he does, even if it is as small and minor as the weight of an ant.
It is very common in Islamic texts to use the word intention instead of the word sincerity. For jurists, intention in principle means to differentiate between acts of worship and habits when performing a deed, and it is to differentiate between acts of worship amongst themselves.

Jaami’ Al-‘Uloom Wal-Hikam (11/1)

 

Differentiating between acts of worship and habits when performing a deed, is like differentiating between taking a bath to clean one’s body or as a ritual bath to cleanse himself from impurity due to sexual intercourse or a wet dream. Differentiating between acts of worship amongst themselves, is like differentiating between praying four Rak’ahs for Dhuhr from those for ‘Asr.

 

However, if the word intention is used as a means to find out who is meant by performing a deed: is it performed purely and sincerely for the sake of Allah or not, then in this case intention is included and part of the definition of sincerity.

Truthfulness and sincerity when performing an act of worship have close meanings, but the difference is that sincerity takes place after one starts performing the deed, while truthfulness is usually before the deed starts. Therefore, sincerity branches out of truthfulness.

At-Ta’reefaat (28).

 

[From the book: Sincerity, page 4-7, by Sh. Salih al-Munajjid]

 

 

The reality of Tawakkul (reliance)


 

The reality of Tawakkul is:

for the heart to rely on Allaah, along with taking the correct means, with complete certainty that Allaah the Exalted is the Provider, Creator, and the Giver and Taker of life. Also, that there is no deity worthy of worship besides Him the Exalted and no Lord except Him.

 

 

Tawakkul is broader than Isti`aanah (seeking help) because Isti`aanah is for a person to ask Allaah the Exalted for His Help in a particular matter; it is a branch of Tawakkul. One relies on Allaah the Exalted in seeking His Help in their affairs. Also, Tawakkul is broader in that it has to do with relying on Allaah the Exalted in bringing about beneficial things and driving harmful things away, as well as other issues.

 

Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allaah have mercy on him, said:

“Tawakkul comprises of reliance on Allaah, in order for Him to help the person do what they are ordered to do, as well as reliance on Allaah in giving the person what they cannot achieve. Isti`aanah (seeking help) is in actions, and Tawakkul is broader than that. Tawakkul is also in bringing about good things and driving harmful things away, as Allaah the Exalted Says:

{If only they had been satisfied with what Allaah and His Messenger gave them and said: ‘Sufficient for us is Allaah; Allaah will give us of His bounty, and [so will] His Messenger; indeed, we are desirous toward Allaah,’ [it would have been better for them].} [Quran 9:59]”

Majmoo’ Al-Fataawa (8/177)

 

Therefore, Tawakkul occurs in obtaining beneficial things and pushing harmful things away, and Isti`aanah is only needed in worship. Therefore, Tawakkul is broader than Isti`aanah, and Allaah the Exalted has combined both principles when He Says (what means):

{It is You we worship and You we ask for help.} [Quran 1:5]

Therefore, worship is for Him, help is sought from Him, and reliance is on Him Alone, without any partners.

 

If things occur opposite to what you hope, then thank Allaah and do not fear anything. If you leave and submit your matters to Allaah, and constantly turn back to Allaah and rely on Him, then Allaah the Exalted will grant you victory and will help you.

 

[Reliance on Allah, by Shaikh Salih al-Munajjid, page 9-10]

 

Does Learning Arithmetic and Astronomy Belong to Soothsaying? Sh. Salih al-Fawzan

November 9, 2014 2 comments

 

Question: Are the calculations of time and rain forecast for agricultural and other purposes considered kinds of astrology?

 

Answer:
No, they are not kinds of astrology. They are allowed types of knowledge that is acquired to facilitate people‘s life. The sun and the moon are to be used in measuring time as Allah says,

It is He who made the sun a shining light and the moon a derived light and determined for it phases – that you may know the number of years and account [of time].

[Quran Surah Yunus verse 5]

 

Al-Khatabi explains that the study of stars by means of observation, and the knowledge used, for example, to identify parts of the day and the Qiblah direction are not forbidden.
It is allowed to use the stars as a guide to directions; Allah says,

And landmarks. And by the stars they are [also] guided. [Quran 16:16]

 

Ibn-Rajab argues that useful knowledge, which facilitates such necessary activities, is considered permissible by the Jumhoor; other than that is considered unnecessary, for it would take the place of more important things.

astronomy and Islam

According to Sahih Al-Bukhari, Qatadah maintains that Allah has assigned stars three functions:

(a) being an ornament for the sky,

(b) shooting eavesdropping devils, and

(c) acing as guiding signals.

 

If one tries to read into the stars other than those functions, he will be taking the wrong path, doing a futile exercise and carrying an unbearable burden. Justifying the three functions, Sulaiman Ibn-Abdullah cites these Qur’anic verses:

“And We have certainly beautified the nearest heaven with stars and have made [from] them what is thrown at the devils” [Quran 67:5]

 

“And landmarks (too), and by the star they find a way.” [Quran 16:16]

 

However, forecast of when rain falls is difficult, for it belongs to the unseen, which is known only to Allah. To associate rainfall with the states of stars is considered an act of ignorance practised before Islam, as people invoked rain through the stars. Yet, knowledge of the right time to plant certain seeds depends on knowledge of the seasons, and this can be mathematically calculated.

 

Wa-Allahu-A’lam (Allah is the One Who knows the whole truth).

 

[Kitab Ad-da’wah, (Book of the Call), Al-Fawzan’s Fatwas, Vol.1, pp.47-48]

 

Devil’s Deception of the Secularists (al-dhariyyah): Ibn al-Jawzi

October 19, 2014 7 comments

 

Iblis has deceived many people to believe that there is no god or creator, and that all things came to existence without a maker. These people denied Allah’s existence because they failed to sense Him with their senses, and failed to use their intellect to recognise Him. Could any person with a sound mind doubt the existence of a maker? If a person passes by a piece of land with no buildings, then returned to find a wall built there, he would realise that there must have been a builder who built the wall.

 

This wide expanse (earth), this raised ceiling (the sky) , these amazing buildings and these running laws that imply wisdom, do not they prove the existence of a creator?! A desert-Arab once said:

“Truly the camel extract points to (the existence of) a camel, so an upper structure that is this pleasant, and a lower center that is this dense; do not they point to al-La!if (the One Who is above All Comprehension), al-Khabir (the One Most Acquainted will Things) . In fact, if a person only contemplates over himself, that would be enough of a proof. The human body contains wisdoms that may not be compiled in a book.”

 

 

He who ponders on the sharpness of teeth to enable it to chop (food), the flatness of molars to grind (food), the tongue that rotates what .is being chewed, the liver that ripens food, how nutrition flows to each part of the body as needed, these fingers that have knuckles so they can bend and open to perform work; they never become hollow from work, otherwise they would break, how some fingers are longer than others so they all become the same length when bent, and how the most hidden of the body is that which holds it together, the soul, once it goes the body become corrupt, and intellect that leads to welfare community, whoever ponders on all of these things must surely call: Can there be any doubt about Allah?

 

 

He who denies Allah is confused because he sought Him through the senses. Others denied Allah because they were unable to sense Him after he had proven His existence in principle. So he went back and denied the principle itself Had these persons used their intellects they would have realised that there are things that can only be determined in principle, such as: the soul and intellect, the existence of which was denied by nobody. What else is the objective other than proving Allah’s existence in principle? And how can anyone ask: How is He? or what is He? When He has no “howness” or “whatness”.

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Among the clear proofs of His existence is that the world is accidental (became after it was not) because it is never free from accidents. Anything that is never free from accidents is, itself, accidental. There must be a causer for these accidents, and the causer is the Creator (the Mighty and the Majestic) .

 

Atheists object to us saying: “(The concept that) anything created must have a creator is based on observation. And we would like to use the ability to observe as the judge between us.”

 

So we respond by saying: “Just as the created must have a creator, the created image must possess substance. For example, wood is the substance of a door, and iron is the substance of an axe.”

 

They respond: “What you use to prove the creator necessitates that this world is pre-eternal (had no beginning) .”

Our answer is:

there is no need for substance. The Creator invents this from nothing. We know that images, like that of a wheel, were created with no substance. So they must have had an image-maker. We have given you the example of something that came from nothing, the image. But you cannot show us a creature that came from no creator.

 

[The Devil’s Deception by Ibn al-Jawzi, page 90-92]

 

Ibn Taymiyyah Concerning Predestination (Qadar)

August 27, 2014 1 comment

 

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah  (may Allah have mercy on him and reward him greatly) said:

“The viewpoint of Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jamaa ‘ah on this issue is that which is indicated by the Qur’an and Sunnah, and that which was followed by the Sahaba (Companions), the Muhaajiroon (Emigrants to Madeenah) and Ansaar (Helpers, Muslim residents of Madeenah), and those who followed them in truth. This view is that Allah is the Creator and Sovereign of all things, which includes all independent entities and their attributes, such as people’s deeds and other things.

 

Whatever He wills happens, and whatever He does not will does not happen. Nothing can happen except by His will and decree. Nothing is beyond Him if He wills it; rather, He is the One Who is Able to do all things, and He does not will anything but He is able to do it. Allah knows what has happened and what is yet to come; if it is not to happen, He knows how it would have been if it had happened. This includes people’s actions and other things. Allah, the Exalted, decreed the decrees of His creation before He created them; He decreed their lifespans, their provision and their deeds, and wrote that down, and He wrote down their ultimate destiny, who will be blessed and who will be doomed.

 
So they (Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jamaa ‘ah) believe that He created all things, that He is Able to do all things, that His will encompasses all that exists, and that He knew and decided and wrote all things before they came into being. “

Majmoo ‘ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/449.

 

He [rahimahullah] also said:

“The Salaf (Pious Predecessors) and aaimmah (the leading scholars) of this ummah are agreed that people are commanded to do that which Allah has commanded them, and are forbidden to do that which Allah has forbidden. They are agreed on their belief in His promise and His warning, which are spoken of in the Qur’an and Sunnah.
They are agreed that there is no justification for anyone with regard to neglecting any obligatory duty or committing any forbidden act; but Allah has perfect evidence against His slaves. “

Majmoo ‘ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/452.

 

Read: “If the people one day want revival, then Al-Qadar (Divine Predestination) has no choice but to answer.”

 

 

“Among the things that are agreed upon by the Salaf (Pious Predecessors) and aaimmah (the leading scholars) of this ummah is their belief in Divine will and Predestination (al-Qadaa ‘ wal-Qadar), and that Allah is the Creator of all things. What He wills happens, and what He does not will does not happen. Allah sends astray whomsoever He wills, and He guides whomsoever He wills. They also believe that people have their own will and freedom to choose, so they do by their own will and power that which Allah enables them to do, but they point out that people do not will anything except that which Allah wills. “

Majmoo ‘ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/459.

 

[Taken from: Divine will and Predestination by Umar Sulaiman al-Ashqar, page 122-124]

 

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