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Why only One God and not two or more than two gods? — Imam al-Tabari

September 11, 2017 Leave a comment

 

Our description has made it clear that the Creator and Originator of all things was before everything, that night and day and time and hours are originated, and that their Originator Who administers and manages them exists before them, since it is impossible for something to originate something unless its originator exists before it. (It is also clear that) God’s word:

“Don’t (the unbelievers) look at the camels (and reflect) how they were created, and at the heaven how it was raised, and at the mountains how they were set up, and at the earth how it was spread out flat? (Quran 88:17-20)

contains the most eloquent evidence and the most effective proofs for those who use reason to reflect and the mind to be instructed, that the Creator of all those things is eternal and that everything of their kind is originated and has a Creator that is not similar to them. That is because everything mentioned by our Lord in this verse, the mountains, the earth, the camels, is dealt with and administered by man, who may move it around and manage it, who may dig, cut, and tear down, none of which he is prevented from doing. Yet, beyond that, man is not able to bring anything of that into existence without a basis (to work from).

 

The conclusion is that the one who is incapable of originating those things could not have originated himself and that the one who is not prevented from managing and organizing whatever he wishes could not have been brought into existence by someone like himself and he did not bring himself into existence. Further, the One Who brought (man) up and gave him substantial (‘ayn) existence is the One Who is not incapable of (doing) anything He wishes, and He is not prevented from originating anything He wants. He is “God Unique and Forceful.” (Quran 12:39)

 

Someone might ask:

Why should it be disapprovable to assume that the things you have mentioned result from the action of two eternal (beings)?

The reply would be:

We disapprove of that because we find that the administration is continuous and the creation perfect. We say:

If the administrators were two, they would necessarily either agree or disagree. If they agree, the two would conceptually be one, and the one would be made two merely by positing two.

If they differ, it would be impossible to find the existence of the creation perfect and (its) administration continuous. For each one of two who differ does what is different from what his fellow does . If one gives life, the other causes death . If one of them produces existence, the other produces annihilation . It would thus be impossible for anything in creation to exist in the perfection and continuity it does.

God’s words: “If there were other gods except God in (heaven and earth), both would be ruined. Praised be God, Lord of the Throne, (who is above) what they describe“; (Quran 21:22) and: “God has not taken to Himself a child , and there has been no god together with Him. Otherwise, each god would have gone off with what he created and risen over the others. Praised be God (who is above) what they describe. He knows what is unseen and what is observable, and He is exalted above their associating (other gods with Him)” (Quran 23:91) -these words of God are the most eloquent evidence and the most concise explanation as well as the most effective proof for the falsehood of those falsehood-mongers who associate (other gods) with God.

 

That is because, if there were another god except God in the heavens and the earth, the condition of the two as to agreement and disagreement would necessarily be the one I have described. Saying that there may be agreement implies that saying they are two is wrong. It confirms the oneness of God and is an absurd statement in as much as the one who makes it calls the one two. Saying that there may be disagreement indicates ruin for the heavens and the earth, as our Lord says : “If there were other gods except God in them, both would be ruined.” (Quran 21:22) For if one originates and creates something, it would be the other’s business to put it out of existence and invalidate it. That is because the actions of two who differ are different, just as fire that warms and snow that cools what fire has warmed.

 

Another argument (would be this):

If it were (true) as those who associate other gods with God say, each one of the two whom they consider as eternal would necessarily be either strong or incapable.

 

If both were incapable , each one, being incapable, would be defeatable and not be a god.

 

If both were strong, each one of them, by virtue of being incapable of subduing the other, would be incapable and being incapable would not be a god.

 

If each one of them were strong enough to subdue the other, he, by virtue of the strength of the other to subdue him in turn, would be incapable. God is above the association of other gods with Him!

 

It has thus become clear that the Eternal One, the Creator and Maker of all things is the One Who existed before everything and Who will be after everything, the First before everything and the Last after everything. He existed when there was no momentary and extended time, no night and no day, no darkness and no light except the light of His noble face, no heaven and no earth, no sun and no moon and no stars. Everything but He is originated, administered and made. He alone by Himself created everything without an associate, helper, and assistant . Praised be He as powerful and forceful!

 

[The history of al-Tabari, vol. 1, pg. 218-220]

 

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Was the Quran contrived from previous scriptures?


 

1- Had the Qur’an been contrived from previously revealed scriptures, Muhammad’s [sallallahu alaihi wasallam] adversaries would not have ignored the matter and remained silent. They would undoubtedly have seized the opportunity to accuse him to that effect. All their allegations were unfounded and lacked proof. The Qur’an itself has already mentioned these allegations and their refutations.

 

2- The Qur’an includes many laws, rulings, instructions, and commands which did not exist in the previous scriptures. Furthermore, the Qur’an contains narratives with detailed accounts of previous generations in addition to prophecies which were fulfilled. An example of this was the final outcome of the conflict between the Romans and the Persians, the events of which were unknown to Muhammad, his people, or the followers of Judaism and Christianity.

 

3- The Qur’an urged people to acquire knowledge and to respect the human mind and intellect. Accordingly, based on Islam’s new teachings and rulings, the Muslims were able, in a very short time, to establish a civilization which replaced the preceding civilizations and flourished for many centuries. Had the Qur’an been compiled from the previous divine religions, why then did these religions not include the aforementioned precepts and teachings and did not play the same role as Islam?

 

 

4- The Qur’an is a Book whose style is consistent and eloquent. Had it been compiled from other scriptures it would have been incoherent, contradictory, and inconsistent due to the alleged various sources.

“…Had it been from other than God, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy.” [4/82]

 

Moreover, the Qur’an always addresses one’s sense and reasoning and does not include fables or myths. It relies upon evidence and facts and demands the same of its adversaries:

“Produce your proof, if you are truthful”. [2/11 and 27/64]

This approach is considered a completely new approach and does not exist in any previous scripture.

 

 

5- It is evident that Islam completely rejected the evil beliefs of paganism, its way of life, and its brutal traditions and replaced them with true faith and a life of virtue. Where then is the Pagan culture that Islam has been falsely accused of adopting from Pre-Islamic Paganism?

 

Devil’s Deception of the Secularists (al-dhariyyah): Ibn al-Jawzi

October 19, 2014 7 comments

 

Iblis has deceived many people to believe that there is no god or creator, and that all things came to existence without a maker. These people denied Allah’s existence because they failed to sense Him with their senses, and failed to use their intellect to recognise Him. Could any person with a sound mind doubt the existence of a maker? If a person passes by a piece of land with no buildings, then returned to find a wall built there, he would realise that there must have been a builder who built the wall.

 

This wide expanse (earth), this raised ceiling (the sky) , these amazing buildings and these running laws that imply wisdom, do not they prove the existence of a creator?! A desert-Arab once said:

“Truly the camel extract points to (the existence of) a camel, so an upper structure that is this pleasant, and a lower center that is this dense; do not they point to al-La!if (the One Who is above All Comprehension), al-Khabir (the One Most Acquainted will Things) . In fact, if a person only contemplates over himself, that would be enough of a proof. The human body contains wisdoms that may not be compiled in a book.”

 

 

He who ponders on the sharpness of teeth to enable it to chop (food), the flatness of molars to grind (food), the tongue that rotates what .is being chewed, the liver that ripens food, how nutrition flows to each part of the body as needed, these fingers that have knuckles so they can bend and open to perform work; they never become hollow from work, otherwise they would break, how some fingers are longer than others so they all become the same length when bent, and how the most hidden of the body is that which holds it together, the soul, once it goes the body become corrupt, and intellect that leads to welfare community, whoever ponders on all of these things must surely call: Can there be any doubt about Allah?

 

 

He who denies Allah is confused because he sought Him through the senses. Others denied Allah because they were unable to sense Him after he had proven His existence in principle. So he went back and denied the principle itself Had these persons used their intellects they would have realised that there are things that can only be determined in principle, such as: the soul and intellect, the existence of which was denied by nobody. What else is the objective other than proving Allah’s existence in principle? And how can anyone ask: How is He? or what is He? When He has no “howness” or “whatness”.

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Among the clear proofs of His existence is that the world is accidental (became after it was not) because it is never free from accidents. Anything that is never free from accidents is, itself, accidental. There must be a causer for these accidents, and the causer is the Creator (the Mighty and the Majestic) .

 

Atheists object to us saying: “(The concept that) anything created must have a creator is based on observation. And we would like to use the ability to observe as the judge between us.”

 

So we respond by saying: “Just as the created must have a creator, the created image must possess substance. For example, wood is the substance of a door, and iron is the substance of an axe.”

 

They respond: “What you use to prove the creator necessitates that this world is pre-eternal (had no beginning) .”

Our answer is:

there is no need for substance. The Creator invents this from nothing. We know that images, like that of a wheel, were created with no substance. So they must have had an image-maker. We have given you the example of something that came from nothing, the image. But you cannot show us a creature that came from no creator.

 

[The Devil’s Deception by Ibn al-Jawzi, page 90-92]

 

Eating food prepared for a Christian festival

December 22, 2013 4 comments

What is the ruling on eating food prepared for a Christian festival? What is the ruling on accepting their invitation to their celebrations of the birth of the Messiah (peace be upon him) [i.e., Christmas celebrations]?

 

Praise be to Allaah.

It is not permissible to celebrate innovated festivals such as the Christmas of the Christians, or Nowrooz (Persian New Year) or Mahrajaan (Persian festival), or festivals that have been innovated by Muslims such as the Prophet’s birthday in Rabee’ al-Awwal or the Israa’ in Rajab and so on.

It is not permissible to eat from that food which the Christians or Mushrikeen prepare on the occasion of their festivals.

It is also not permissible to accept their invitations to join them in their celebrations of those festivals, because this encourages them and is tantamount to approving of their bid’ah, which gives the wrong idea to ignorant people and makes them think that there is nothing wrong with that. And Allah knows best.

From Al-Lu’lu’ al-Makeen min Fataawaa Ibn Jibreen, p. 27.
Taken from Islamqa

Muslim’s attitude towards Valentine’s Day/Kafir’s festival


He should not celebrate it, or join others in their celebrations of it, or attend their celebrations, because of the evidence from Quran and Sunnah which shows that it is forbidden to celebrate the festivals of the Kuffar.

 

Al-Hafidh adh-Dhahabi, may Allah have mercy on him, said:

“If the Christians have a festival and the Jews have a festival, which belongs only to them, then the Muslim should not join them in that, just as he does not join them in their religion or their direction of prayer.”

(Tashabbuh al-Khasees bi Ahl al-Khamees, al-Hikmah magazine, 4/193).

 

 

Because one of the basic principles of the pious predecessors was al-Walaa’ wa’l-Baraa’ (loyalty and friendship vs. disavowal and enmity), it is obligatory for everyone who says Laa ilaaha ill-Allah Muhammad Rasool Allah to follow this principle. So he should love the believers and he should hate the disbelievers, oppose them, and be different from them. He should know that that will bring immeasurable benefits, just as imitating them causes far greater harm. In addition to that, when the Muslims imitate them it makes the Kuffar happy and fills their hearts with joy, and it leads the Muslims to love the Kuffar in their hearts. If any Muslim girl who celebrates this holiday because she sees Margaret or Hilary or whoever doing so, this undoubtedly reflects the fact that she is following them and approves of their behavior. But Allah Says (what means):

{O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Awliyaa’ (friends, protectors, helpers), they are but Awliyaa’ of each other. And if any amongst you takes them (as Awliyaa’), then surely, he is one of them. Verily, Allaah guides not those people who are the Thaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers and unjust).}

[Quran, 5:51]

 

One of the bad effects of imitating them is that this makes it look as if there are more of them, as if they have more supporters and followers. How can it be appropriate for a Muslim who recites in every Rak’ah: {Guide us to the Straight Way, The way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your Anger, nor of those who went astray.} [Quran, 1:6-7], to ask Allah for guidance to the Straight Path of the believers and to keep him away from the path of those who have earned His anger and of those who went astray, then go and follow their path by choice and willingly?

 

Statistics indicate that Valentine’s Day is second only to Christmas in popularity. So it is clear that the Feast of Love is one of the festivals of the Christians and that it is second only to the festival of Christmas, the celebration of the birth of the Messiah. So it is not permissible for Muslims to join in the celebrations of this date, because we are commanded to differ from them in their religion, customs and other things that belong exclusively to them, as is stated in the Quran and Sunnah and scholarly consensus.

 

 

He should not help the Kuffar in their celebrations, because it is one of the rituals of Kufr, so helping them and approving of what they do is helping them to manifest Kufr and make it prevail, and approving of it. The Muslim’s religion does not allow him to approve of Kufr or help others to manifest it and make it prevail.

Hence Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy on him, said:

“It is not permissible for the Muslims to imitate them in anything that is specifically part of their festivals, whether it is food, clothing, bathing, lighting fires, or changing a custom of daily life or worship… To sum up, they should not do any of the specific rituals of their (the Kuffar’s) festival on that day; rather the day of their festival should be just another ordinary day for the Muslim.”

(Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 25/329)

 

 

He should not help any Muslims who celebrate it. Rather it is obligatory to denounce them, because for the Muslims to celebrate the festivals of the Kuffar is an evil action which must be denounced. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

“Just as we should not imitate them in their festivals, so too we should not help a Muslim to do that; rather he should be told not to do that.”

(al-Iqtidaa’, 2/519-520)

 

Based on the statement of Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy on him, it is not permissible for Muslim businessmen to deal in gifts for Valentine’s Day, whether they are particular kinds of clothes, red roses, or whatever. Similarly, it is not permissible for the one who is given a gift on this occasion to accept it, because by accepting it, he is showing approval of this holiday.

 

 

We should not accept congratulations on Valentine’s Day, because it is not a holiday or an ‘Eed for the Muslims. If the Muslim is congratulated on this occasion, he should not return the congratulations.

 

Ibn Qayyim, (may Allah have mercy on him), said:

“With regard to congratulating others with the congratulations used by the Kuffar on such occasions, it is Haram by scholarly consensus, such as congratulating them on the occasion of their festivals or fasts, wishing them a blessed festival, etc. Even if the one who says this is free of Kufr, it is still Haram. It is like congratulating someone for prostrating to the cross.

 

It is even worse with Allah and more hated by Him than congratulating someone for drinking alcohol, or committing murder or adultery, etc. Many of those who have no respect for religion do that, and they do not realize the abhorrence of their actions. Whoever congratulates a person for sin, innovation (bidah) or Kufr exposes himself to the hatred and wrath of Allah.”

(Ahkam Ahl ad-Dhimmah, 1/441-442)

 

 

We must explain the true nature of this holiday and other festivals of the Kuffar to those Muslims who have been deceived by them, and explain to them that it is essential for the Muslim to be distinguished by his religion and to protect his belief (‘Aqeedah) from anything that may damage it. This should be done out of sincerity towards the Ummah and in fulfillment of the command to enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil.

 

[From the book: Celebrating Valentines day, page 22-31, by Sh. Salih al-Munajjid]

 

 

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