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Why only One God and not two or more than two gods? — Imam al-Tabari

September 11, 2017 Leave a comment

 

Our description has made it clear that the Creator and Originator of all things was before everything, that night and day and time and hours are originated, and that their Originator Who administers and manages them exists before them, since it is impossible for something to originate something unless its originator exists before it. (It is also clear that) God’s word:

“Don’t (the unbelievers) look at the camels (and reflect) how they were created, and at the heaven how it was raised, and at the mountains how they were set up, and at the earth how it was spread out flat? (Quran 88:17-20)

contains the most eloquent evidence and the most effective proofs for those who use reason to reflect and the mind to be instructed, that the Creator of all those things is eternal and that everything of their kind is originated and has a Creator that is not similar to them. That is because everything mentioned by our Lord in this verse, the mountains, the earth, the camels, is dealt with and administered by man, who may move it around and manage it, who may dig, cut, and tear down, none of which he is prevented from doing. Yet, beyond that, man is not able to bring anything of that into existence without a basis (to work from).

 

The conclusion is that the one who is incapable of originating those things could not have originated himself and that the one who is not prevented from managing and organizing whatever he wishes could not have been brought into existence by someone like himself and he did not bring himself into existence. Further, the One Who brought (man) up and gave him substantial (‘ayn) existence is the One Who is not incapable of (doing) anything He wishes, and He is not prevented from originating anything He wants. He is “God Unique and Forceful.” (Quran 12:39)

 

Someone might ask:

Why should it be disapprovable to assume that the things you have mentioned result from the action of two eternal (beings)?

The reply would be:

We disapprove of that because we find that the administration is continuous and the creation perfect. We say:

If the administrators were two, they would necessarily either agree or disagree. If they agree, the two would conceptually be one, and the one would be made two merely by positing two.

If they differ, it would be impossible to find the existence of the creation perfect and (its) administration continuous. For each one of two who differ does what is different from what his fellow does . If one gives life, the other causes death . If one of them produces existence, the other produces annihilation . It would thus be impossible for anything in creation to exist in the perfection and continuity it does.

God’s words: “If there were other gods except God in (heaven and earth), both would be ruined. Praised be God, Lord of the Throne, (who is above) what they describe“; (Quran 21:22) and: “God has not taken to Himself a child , and there has been no god together with Him. Otherwise, each god would have gone off with what he created and risen over the others. Praised be God (who is above) what they describe. He knows what is unseen and what is observable, and He is exalted above their associating (other gods with Him)” (Quran 23:91) -these words of God are the most eloquent evidence and the most concise explanation as well as the most effective proof for the falsehood of those falsehood-mongers who associate (other gods) with God.

 

That is because, if there were another god except God in the heavens and the earth, the condition of the two as to agreement and disagreement would necessarily be the one I have described. Saying that there may be agreement implies that saying they are two is wrong. It confirms the oneness of God and is an absurd statement in as much as the one who makes it calls the one two. Saying that there may be disagreement indicates ruin for the heavens and the earth, as our Lord says : “If there were other gods except God in them, both would be ruined.” (Quran 21:22) For if one originates and creates something, it would be the other’s business to put it out of existence and invalidate it. That is because the actions of two who differ are different, just as fire that warms and snow that cools what fire has warmed.

 

Another argument (would be this):

If it were (true) as those who associate other gods with God say, each one of the two whom they consider as eternal would necessarily be either strong or incapable.

 

If both were incapable , each one, being incapable, would be defeatable and not be a god.

 

If both were strong, each one of them, by virtue of being incapable of subduing the other, would be incapable and being incapable would not be a god.

 

If each one of them were strong enough to subdue the other, he, by virtue of the strength of the other to subdue him in turn, would be incapable. God is above the association of other gods with Him!

 

It has thus become clear that the Eternal One, the Creator and Maker of all things is the One Who existed before everything and Who will be after everything, the First before everything and the Last after everything. He existed when there was no momentary and extended time, no night and no day, no darkness and no light except the light of His noble face, no heaven and no earth, no sun and no moon and no stars. Everything but He is originated, administered and made. He alone by Himself created everything without an associate, helper, and assistant . Praised be He as powerful and forceful!

 

[The history of al-Tabari, vol. 1, pg. 218-220]

 

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Devil’s Deception of the Secularists (al-dhariyyah): Ibn al-Jawzi

October 19, 2014 7 comments

 

Iblis has deceived many people to believe that there is no god or creator, and that all things came to existence without a maker. These people denied Allah’s existence because they failed to sense Him with their senses, and failed to use their intellect to recognise Him. Could any person with a sound mind doubt the existence of a maker? If a person passes by a piece of land with no buildings, then returned to find a wall built there, he would realise that there must have been a builder who built the wall.

 

This wide expanse (earth), this raised ceiling (the sky) , these amazing buildings and these running laws that imply wisdom, do not they prove the existence of a creator?! A desert-Arab once said:

“Truly the camel extract points to (the existence of) a camel, so an upper structure that is this pleasant, and a lower center that is this dense; do not they point to al-La!if (the One Who is above All Comprehension), al-Khabir (the One Most Acquainted will Things) . In fact, if a person only contemplates over himself, that would be enough of a proof. The human body contains wisdoms that may not be compiled in a book.”

 

 

He who ponders on the sharpness of teeth to enable it to chop (food), the flatness of molars to grind (food), the tongue that rotates what .is being chewed, the liver that ripens food, how nutrition flows to each part of the body as needed, these fingers that have knuckles so they can bend and open to perform work; they never become hollow from work, otherwise they would break, how some fingers are longer than others so they all become the same length when bent, and how the most hidden of the body is that which holds it together, the soul, once it goes the body become corrupt, and intellect that leads to welfare community, whoever ponders on all of these things must surely call: Can there be any doubt about Allah?

 

 

He who denies Allah is confused because he sought Him through the senses. Others denied Allah because they were unable to sense Him after he had proven His existence in principle. So he went back and denied the principle itself Had these persons used their intellects they would have realised that there are things that can only be determined in principle, such as: the soul and intellect, the existence of which was denied by nobody. What else is the objective other than proving Allah’s existence in principle? And how can anyone ask: How is He? or what is He? When He has no “howness” or “whatness”.

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Among the clear proofs of His existence is that the world is accidental (became after it was not) because it is never free from accidents. Anything that is never free from accidents is, itself, accidental. There must be a causer for these accidents, and the causer is the Creator (the Mighty and the Majestic) .

 

Atheists object to us saying: “(The concept that) anything created must have a creator is based on observation. And we would like to use the ability to observe as the judge between us.”

 

So we respond by saying: “Just as the created must have a creator, the created image must possess substance. For example, wood is the substance of a door, and iron is the substance of an axe.”

 

They respond: “What you use to prove the creator necessitates that this world is pre-eternal (had no beginning) .”

Our answer is:

there is no need for substance. The Creator invents this from nothing. We know that images, like that of a wheel, were created with no substance. So they must have had an image-maker. We have given you the example of something that came from nothing, the image. But you cannot show us a creature that came from no creator.

 

[The Devil’s Deception by Ibn al-Jawzi, page 90-92]

 

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