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Al-Tabari as a teacher for a wazir’s son

August 11, 2017 Leave a comment

 

A friend of his knew that the wazir was looking for a tutor for his son, and the friend asked Tabari whether he was willing to accept the position if it was offered to him. Tabari agreed, no doubt eagerly. The friend was able to arrange matters. After first providing him with the proper clothes, he introduced him to the wazir. Ibn Khaaqan gained a good impression of him. He offered him the position and agreed to pay ten dinars per month.

 

In addition, he had a contract drawn up specifying the time Tabari was allowed to devote to study, prayer, eating, and resting, and even gave him upon his request a one-month advance. A well-equipped classroom (hujrat al-ta’dib) for the boy was assigned to Tabari. He instructed him in writing, and his pupil appears to have quickly learned how to write. The writing tablet that demonstrated the boy’s newly acquired skill was taken by servants to his mother and the other slave girls who had borne children to their master (ummahat al-walad) as proof of the good news.

 

The overjoyed ladies filled a tray with dirhams and dinars and sent it with the servants back to Tabari. He, however, refused to accept the money. He had, he said, a contract with the wazir to be paid a certain sum and was not entitled to any further compensation. The matter was submitted to the wazir who summoned him and told him that he was wrong to reject the well-meant gift of the women and had offended them by not accepting it. Tabari argued that the women were slaves and legally owned no property of their own. He obviously implied that it was really the wazir who was the source of the money and who therefore was paying more than had been agreed upon in the contract.

Tabari learned a lesson from this occurrence. Later on, when friends would bring him a gift of food, it was his established custom (sunnah) to accept it as being, in contrast to money, merely a token gift; but, prompted by his socially proper attitude (muruwwah), he would make an appropriate return gift. This taught his friends that it would be inadvisable to press gifts on him.

 

[Ibn ‘Asakir, LXXV; adh-Dhahabi, Nubala XIV, 271]

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Different definitions of patience

July 13, 2016 2 comments

No matter how severe affliction or excessive joy a Muslim may get, he is supposed to be patient or grateful. But to be patient, we should know what patience means.

 

Ibn Qayyim says:

“Man, by nature, prefers prosperity but when he meets with affliction which is inevitable, patience is the best quality.”

Patience has very vast meaning and understood differently by different scholars. Mentioned below are few basic simple definition of patience.

 

Al-Junaid:

“Patience is to keep calmly content while facing affliction.”

 

Dhu-Nun:

“Patience is to restrain yourself from ill-conduct, remain quiet during affliction and without complaining.”

 

Abu Uthman:

“The one who has patience is the one who had trained himself to handle hardship.” 

 

Amr ibn Uthman al-Makki:

“Patience means to keep close to Allah & to accept calmly the trials He sends, without complaining or feeling sad.”

 

Ruwaim:

“Patience means to refrain from complaining.”

 

Abu Muhammed Al-Hariri:

“Patience means that there is no difference in behavior in times of prosperity & that of adversity & to be content at all times.”

 

Abu Ali Ad-Daqqaq:

“Patience means not to object to your fate.”

 

Al-Khawwas:

“Patience is to adhere to the injunctions of the Quran and Sunnah.”

 

Prophet Muhammed (ﷺ) said:

“No one had ever been given anything better than patience.”

[Bukhari and Muslim]

 

[Taken from “The way to patience and gratitude”, by Ibn Qayyim, pg. 14-16 ]

Imam Shaybani’s first encounter with Imam Malik [rahimahullah]


 

When the young Iraqi jurist, Imam Shaybani [Muhammed Ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani], visited Madina for the first time, he went incognito to the circle of Imam Malik and inquired:

“What is your opinion about a person who is in need of major ablution (ghusl) and who comes to a mosque and finds that the water for ablution is available only in the mosque where a congregational prayer is already in progress?”

Imam Malik replied: “A person who is in need of major ablution cannot enter mosque.”

 

The young stranger repeated the question several times only to receive the same answer from Imam Malik. Noticing that the young man was not satisfied with the answer, the teacher asked: “What, then, is your opinion?”

“He should make tayammum, enter the mosque, obtain water and make ablution to join the prayer”, came the prompt answer.

 

Astonished with the clarity and presence of mind of the young visitor, Imam Malik asked: “Where are you from?” “From here,” (pointing to the earth) was the answer.

 

When he left the company, Imam Malik asked his colleagues as to who the visitor was. When he was told that he was a young disciple of Abu Hanifah from Iraq, he wondered: “But he told me he was from here!” When it was explained to him that while saying so he had pointed to the earth, Imam Malik observed that his second answer was even more astonishing and intelligent.

[Al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi, Tareekh Baghdad (Cairo, 1931), vol. II, pp. 174-175]

 

Benefits:

  • Everything is not known to anyone except to Allah: No matter how knowledgeable one is, it is always possible that he might not know what other knows even those with lesser knowledge.

 

  • Manners: Imam Malik did not show his anger to this stranger even though he repeated his question several times.

 

  • Respect: Imam Malik did not become angry on being told different answer to his by al-Shaybani. He did not say: “How dare he to ask me?” “Who is he to question my knowledge?” since I am the Imam of Madina etc. etc. Rather he respected his knowledge and admired it.

 

 

  • Travelling to learn knowledge: Scholars of past used to travel to different parts of world to gain knowledge. Even Musa [alaihi salam] travelled to meet Khidr to gain knowledge from him bestowed on him by Allah.

 

[Benefits by Dr. Iftakhar Ahmed]

 

Umar’s advice to his son from his deathbed


Ibn Abi’-Dunya narrated that Yahya ibn Abi Rashid al-Basri said: Umar [radiAllahu anhu] said to his son,

Be economical with my shroud, for if there is good for me with Allah, He will exchange it for me for that which is better than it. If I have been otherwise, He will strip me and be very fast in stripping me.

Be economical in the grave you dig for me, for if there is good for me with Allah, He will expand it for me as far as my sight can reach. If I have been otherwise, He will tighten it upon me until my ribs interlace.

Let not a woman go out with me (to the grave), and do not attribute to me a purity that I do not have, for Allah has more knowledge of me.

When you go out (with me to the grave) then hasten your pace, for if there is good for me with Allah, you will send me on to what is better for me. If I am otherwise, you will throw an evil you have been carrying down from your necks.”

[al-Khulafa’ ar-Rashidun, page- 166]

Advises of the Prophet Muhammed [ﷺ]


 

Abu Dharr (Radia-Allahu ‘anhu) said: “O Messenger of Allah (ﷺ)! Give me some advise! Give me some advise!”

He (ﷺ) said:

“I advise you to have Taqwa of Allaah (i.e. fear Allah), because it is the head of all matters.”

 

I said: “O Messenger of Allah! Give me some more advise.”
He (ﷺ) said:

“Recite the Qur’an and remember Allah; because it is a light for you in the earth and a treasure (store) for you in the heaven.”

 
I said: “O Messenger of Allah! Give me some more advise!”

He (ﷺ) said:

“Beware of laughing excessively; because it causes the death of the heart and it will take away the light from the face.”

Advise of Prophet Muhammed
I said: “O Messenger of Allaah! Give me some more advise!”

He (ﷺ) said:

Persevere upon Jihad; because it is monasticism of my nation.”

 
I said: “O Messenger of Allaah! Give me some more advise!”
He (ﷺ) said:

Love the poor people and sit with them.”

 

I said: “O Messenger of Allaah! Give me some more advise!”
He (ﷺ) said:

“Look at those who are below you and do not look at those who are above you, lest you contempt the blessings of Allaah that are bestowed upon you.”

 
I said: “O Messenger of Allaah! Give me some more advise!”
He (ﷺ) said:

“Say the truth even if it is bitter.”

 
[Reported by Ibn Hibban in his Saheeh and Al-Haakim. Al-Albaani graded it Saheeh Ligairihi, in Saheeh at-Targheeb wat Tarheeb # 2233]

Is hadd punishment for apostasy or similar crimes to be implemented only by the sultan (ruler) or his deputy? Sh. Ibn Taymiyyah

January 11, 2015 4 comments

 

Regarding the query that hudood punishment can only be carried out by the ruler or his deputy. Then Shaikh al Islam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullah] said:

 

1 – The master may carry out the hadd punishment on his slave, based on the evidence that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“Carry out the hadd punishments on those whom your right hands possess.”

[Narrated by Ahmad (736) and others; classed as hasan by al-Arna’oot because of corroborating evidence. Al-Albaani was inclined to the view that these are the words of ‘Ali, as stated in al-Irwa’ (2325).]

 

And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“If the slave woman of one of you commits zina, let him carry out the hadd punishment on her.”

[Narrated by Abu Dawood (4470); there is a similar report in al-Saheehayn.]

 

I do not know of anyone among the fuqaha’ of hadeeth who disagreed with the view that he should carry out hadd punishments on her, such as the hadd punishments for zina, slander and drinking; there is no difference of opinion among the Muslims concerning the fact that he may carry out disciplinary punishments (ta’zeer) on him. But they differed as to whether he may carry out punishments of execution or amputation on him, such as executing him for apostasy or for reviling the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), or cutting off his hand for stealing.

 

Two reports were narrated from Imam Ahmad concerning this. The first says that it is permissible, which is the view narrated from al-Shaafa’i, and the second says that it is not permissible, like one of the two views of the companions of al-Shaafa’i. This is also the view of Maalik. And it was narrated in a saheeh report from Ibn ‘Umar that he cut off the hand of a slave of his who stole, and it is narrated in a saheeh report from Hafsah that she executed a slave woman of hers who admitted to practising witchcraft, and that was based on the opinion of Ibn ‘Umar. So the hadeeth is evidence for those who say that it is permissible for the master to carry out the hadd punishment on his slave on the basis of his knowledge, in all cases.

 

 

2 – The most that can be said about that is that he [one acting without the permission of ruler] is transgressing the position of the ruler, and the ruler may pardon the one who carried out a hadd punishment that must be carried out without referring the matter to him.

 

3 – Although this was a hadd punishment, it also comes under the heading of killing a harbi (a non-Muslim in a state of war against Islam), and it is permissible for anyone to kill a harbi.

 

4 – Similar things happened at the time of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), such as:

#the hypocrite who was killed by ‘Umar without the permission of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), when the hypocrite did not agree with the ruling of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Then Qur’aan was revealed approving ‘Umar’s action.

 

# And there was the daughter of Marwaan who was killed by that man, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) called him the supporter of Allaah and His Messenger.

That is because the one whose execution becomes necessary because of his plot to corrupt the religion is not like one who is executed because of his sin of zina and the like.

End quote from al-Saarim al-Maslool (285-286).

Taken from: Islamqa

 

Clarity Of Moral Values: Al-Ghazali [rahimahullah]

September 14, 2014 Leave a comment

 

Clarity of values gives us a sense of who we are and why we do what we do. If we have an internal conflict between our values and our strategy, we will not succeed. Values determine what really matters in life. They provide us with a basis from which to make sound judgments about what makes life worth living.

 

Al-Ghazali refers to verses [23:1-10] of the Quran as an example of believers who have succeeded by incorporating Quranic values:

Certainly will the believers have succeeded:

  1. They who during their prayer humbly submissive;
  2.  those who turn away from ill speech;
  3. they who are observant of the poor-due;
  4. they who guard their private parts except from their wives and those their right hands possess for indeed, they will not be blamed, but whatever seeks beyond that, then they are the transgressors;
  5. and they who are to their trusts and their promises attentive;
  6. and they who carefully maintain their prayers. Those are the inheritors. (Q. 23:1-10)

 

Al-Ghazali then summarizes the verses to describe a person of good character:

A person of good character is he who is modest says little, causes little trouble, speaks the truth: seeks the good,worships much, has few faults, meddles little, desires the good for all, and does good works for all.

 

He is compassionate, dignified, measured, patient, content, grateful, sympathetic, friendly, abstinent, and not greedy.

 

He does not use foul language, nor does he exhibit haste, nor does he harbor hatred in his heart. He is not envious.

 

He is candid, well-spoken, and his friendship and enmity, his anger and his pleasure are for the sake of Allah Most High and nothing more.

 

As a result of the performance of the acts of worship, if accompanied by Divine Grace, the one who submits to the Will of Allah will be receptive to the adoption of positive dispositions (the deliverers) like temperance, courage, wisdom, and justice and be able to avoid negative dispositions (the destroyers) like anger, fear of other than Allah, cowardice, lust, envy, apathy, preconsciousness (knowing that you do not know), unconsciousness (not knowing that you do not know) and over-consciousness (knowing but deceiving the self about it), but only on the condition that others benefit from the positive dispositions one has attained.

 

This, then, makes it incumbent on the one who has submitted to the Will of Allah to come to know and act upon the commands that underlie the relationship of self to others.

 

[Al-Ghazali on disciplining the self, page 8-9]

 

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