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Connotative meanings of patience —Ibn Qayyim


 

Patience takes on the name what it refers to. Different names may be applied to patience in different situations. Ibn Qayyim (rahimahullah) has beautifully mentioned few examples here:

 

Patience is called chastity if it is associated with restraining a sexual desire.

 

Patience is called self-restraint if it refers to controlling one’s stomach.

 

When referring to refraining from disclosing what is better to keep secret, it is called keeping one’s secret.

 

If it consists of being content with what is sufficient for one’s needs, it is called asceticism.

 
If it consists of being content of what someone has of worldly life, it is called self-content.

 

If it refers to controlling one’s nerves when angry, it is called forbearance.

 
When it refers to detesting from haste, it is called gracefulness.

 
If it refers to not fleeing or running away, it is called courage.

 

If it refers to refraining from taking revenge, it is called forgiveness.

 

If it refers to not being stingy, it is called generosity.

 

When it refers to abstaining from food and drink for a specific period, it is called fasting.

 

If it consists of refraining from being helpless and lazy, it is called discretion.

 

If it refers to refraining from loading other people’s burden it is called chivalry.

 

In conclusion, patience has various names according to the situation it applies to, but all of them are included under patience. This indicates that all tenants and rites of Islam are associated with patience.

 
[Taken from “The way to patience and gratitude”, by Ibn Qayyim, pg. 21-22]

 

Different definitions of patience


No matter how severe affliction or excessive joy a Muslim may get, he is supposed to be patient or grateful. But to be patient, we should know what patience means.

 

Ibn Qayyim says:

“Man, by nature, prefers prosperity but when he meets with affliction which is inevitable, patience is the best quality.”

Patience has very vast meaning and understood differently by different scholars. Mentioned below are few basic simple definition of patience.

 

Al-Junaid:

“Patience is to keep calmly content while facing affliction.”

 

Dhu-Nun:

“Patience is to restrain yourself from ill-conduct, remain quiet during affliction and without complaining.”

 

Abu Uthman:

“The one who has patience is the one who had trained himself to handle hardship.” 

 

Amr ibn Uthman al-Makki:

“Patience means to keep close to Allah & to accept calmly the trials He sends, without complaining or feeling sad.”

 

Ruwaim:

“Patience means to refrain from complaining.”

 

Abu Muhammed Al-Hariri:

“Patience means that there is no difference in behavior in times of prosperity & that of adversity & to be content at all times.”

 

Abu Ali Ad-Daqqaq:

“Patience means not to object to your fate.”

 

Al-Khawwas:

“Patience is to adhere to the injunctions of the Quran and Sunnah.”

 

Prophet Muhammed (ﷺ) said:

“No one had ever been given anything better than patience.”

[Bukhari and Muslim]

 

[Taken from “The way to patience and gratitude”, by Ibn Qayyim, pg. 14-16 ]

Different kinds of humility


 

Humility is one of the greatest blessings that Allaah can bestow upon His slave. He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And by the Mercy of Allaah, you dealt with them gently. And had you been severe and harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about you”

[Aal ‘Imraan 3:159]

 

“And verily, you (O Muhammad) are on an exalted (standard of) character”

[al-Qalam 68:4]

 

This refers to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) being a true slave of Allah in many ways and his treating all people with the utmost kindness. His character was one of complete humility based on sincerity towards Allah and compassion towards the slaves of Allah, which was the complete opposite of the characteristics of the proud and arrogant.

Al-Majmoo’ al-Kaamilah li Mu’allafaat al-Shaykh al-Sa’di, 5/442, 443

 

There are many means of attaining humility, which no Muslim adopts but he will attain this characteristic. They were explained by Imam Ibn al-Qayyim as follows:

Humility comes from knowing about Allah and His names and attributes, and His greatness, venerating Him, loving Him and being in awe of Him; and also from knowing about oneself and one’s faults, and weaknesses. From that may develop the attitude of humility, which means feeling helpless before Allah, and being humble and compassionate towards His slaves, so that the person does not feel superior towards anyone, or think that he has any rights over anyone else; rather he thinks that others are better than him, and that their rights come before his. This is a characteristic that Allah gives to those whom He loves, honours and draws close to Him.

Al-Rooh, p. 233.

 

There are many reports which speak of the reward of humility. For example:

It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“Wealth does not decrease because of charity, and Allah increases His slave in honour when he forgives others. And no one humbles himself before Allah but Allah will raise him (in status).”

Narrated by Muslim, 2588. Al-Nawawi included it in a chapter entitled: “The recommendation of forgiveness and humility.”

Al-Nawawi said:

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “And no one humbles himself before Allaah but Allaah will raise him (in status).” This is understood in two ways: the first is that He will raise him (in status) in this world, and give him status in people’s hearts because of his humility, and give him a high status in people’s eyes. The second is that what is meant is his reward in the Hereafter, where his status will be raised because of his humility in this world.

The scholars said: It may be that both are meant, (and that his status will be raised) both in this world and in the Hereafter. And Allaah knows best.

Sharh Muslim, 16/142.

 

Humility may mean various things, such as:

1.     A person humbling himself to the commands and prohibitions of Allaah, doing what He commands and avoiding what He forbids. 

Ibn al-Qayyim said:

Because a person may hesitate to obey His commands out of laziness, thus behaving in a reluctant way in an attempt to flee from servitude towards Allah, and his soul may have the desire to commit haraam actions, but when  the person humbles himself to the commands and prohibitions of Allah, he will humble himself to true submission (‘uboodiyyah).

Al-Rooh p. 233.

 

2.     Humbling oneself before the might, majesty and power of Allah. 

Ibn al-Qayyim said:

Every time he feels that he is great, he remembers the might of Allah and that might belongs to Him only, and he remembers His intense anger against those who compete with Him in that, then he humbles himself before Him and submits to the might of Allah. This is the ultimate humility and inevitably includes the first type of humility mentioned above, but the converse can never apply (i.e., this type of humility inevitably leads to the first type, but a person may submit to the commands and prohibitions of Allah but he does not humble himself before His might).

The one who is truly humble is the one who is blessed with both. And Allaah is the One Whose help we seek.

Al-Rooh, p. 233.

 

3.     Humility in one’s dress and manner of walking. 

It was narrated from Ibn ‘Umar that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“Whilst a man was letting his garment drag out of pride, he was swallowed up by the earth and will continue sinking in it until the Day of Resurrection.”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3297.

It was also narrated by al-Bukhaari (5452) and Muslim (2088) from the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah. According to the version narrated by al-Bukhaari:

“Whilst a man was walking in a garment admiring himself with his hair nicely combed, Allah caused (the earth) to swallow him up and he will continue sinking in it until the Day of Resurrection.”

 

4.     Humility towards one who is of a lesser status and helping him  

It was narrated that al-Bara’ ibn ‘Aazib said:

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was moving soil with us on the day of al-Ahzaab, and I saw him with dust covering the whiteness of his stomach, and he (the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)) was saying, “(O Allah)! Without You, we would not have been guided, nor would we have given in charity, nor would we have prayed. So (O Allah!) send tranquility (Sakeenah) upon us as they (the chiefs of the enemy tribes) have rebelled against us. And if they intend affliction (i.e. want to frighten us and fight against us) then we would not (flee but would withstand them).” And he raised his voice whilst saying it.

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6809; Muslim, 1803.

 

5.     Humility in interactions with one’s wife and helping her. 

It was narrated that al-Aswad said: I asked ‘Aa’ishah what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to do in his house, and she said:

He used to serve his family and when the time for prayer came he would go out and pray.

al-Bukhaari, 644.

 

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar said:

This shows that we are encouraged to be humble and not arrogant, and that a man should serve his family.

Fath al-Baari, 2/163

 

6.     Humility towards the young and joking with them. 

It was narrated that Anas said:

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was the best of people in character. I had a brother whose name was Abu ‘Umayr. He said, I think he was weaned, and when he (the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)) came he would say, “O Abu Umayr, what happened to the nughayr (a small bird that he kept as a pet)?”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5850; Muslim, 2150.

 

Al-Nawawi said:

The nughayr is a small bird.

This hadeeth teaches us many things, such as being kind to small children. This demonstrates the good character of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and how he was of noble character and humble.

Sharh Muslim, 14/129

 

7.     Humility towards servants and slaves 

It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“If the servant of one of you brings his food and he does not want to make him sit and eat with him, then let him offer him a morsel or two, because he has prepared it and served it.”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2418 and 5144; Muslim, 1663.

We ask Allaah to make us among those who humble themselves before His might.

 

Source: Islam-qa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Degrees of Gratefulness


 

In order to be a grateful person or to learn how to be a grateful person, keep in mind the advice of the Prophet [sallallahu alaihi wasallam] when he said:

“If any of you would like to see the great blessings of Allah on him, then let him look at those who are less fortunate than him, not those who appear better off than him.” [Agreed upon]

 

Abu Hurairah [radiAllahu anhu] narrated that Allah’s Messenger [sallallahu alaihi wasallam] said:

“If anyone of you looked at a person who was made superior to him in property and (in worldly rank and in good) appearance, then he should also look at the one who is inferior to him.”

[Reported by al-Bukhari]

Also remember not to be like the one in the following verse in Surat ash-Shura (42:48):
وَإنِاَّ إذَِا أذََقْناَ الْإِنسَانَ مِناَّ رَحْمَة فرَِحَ بهِاَ وَإنِ تصُِبْهمُْ سَيئِّةَ بمَِا قدََّمَتْ أيَْدِيهِمْ فإَنَِّ
الْإِنسَانَ كَفوُرٌ

“And verily, when We cause man to taste of Mercy from Us, he rejoices thereat, but when some ill befalls them because of the deeds which their hands have sent forth, then verily, man (becomes) ingrate!”

 

There are two degrees of gratefulness:

1- Thanking Allah for liked matters.
2- Thanking Allah for disliked matters (e.g. when calamity befalls).

grateful

Al-Harawi said:

“A person shows acceptance (satisfaction), represses anger, hides the complaint, follows the good manners, and this grateful person is the first to be called to enter Paradise.”

 

Ibn al-Qayyim said:

Gratefulness for disliked matters is more difficult and harder than giving thanks for liked matters, therefore, is a degree above the latter. A believer who appears normal in his state, behaviour, or attitude when a calamity befalls him, has indeed offered his thanks to Allah. The gratefulness of this person is in showing satisfaction and acceptance of Allah’s decree and this is called Maqam ar-Rida (the degree of satisfaction).

 
Another person dislikes that a calamity befalls him, and when it does, he appears different from his normal state and behaviour, although he thanks Allah . His thankfulness is in repressing his anger, refraining from complaining and accepting Allah’s decree. He thanks Allah because he has the knowledge that he must do so in prosperity and in adversity. However, the first person is higher in degree than the second, and this is why he is the first to be called to enter Paradise.”

[Madarij al-Salikeen 2/254]

 

Hypocrisy is a deep rooted and all pervading spiritual disease- Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah

November 17, 2013 1 comment

 

Hypocrisy is a deep rooted and all pervading spiritual disease. A person’s heart could be overflowing with it yet be oblivious of it due to its hidden and subtle nature; frequently does it lead a person to think he is acting rightly when in reality he is spreading corruption.

 

 

It is of two types: major and minor;

major hypocrisy leads to eternal punishment in the lowest depths of the Hell [1]; it is to outwardly display faith in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers and the Last Day whereas inwardly one is devoid of such belief, indeed disbelieving in it. He does not believe that Allah spoke to a man amongst men who He appointed to be a Messenger: guiding them by His permission and warning them of His punishment.

 

 

In the Quran, Allah has the machinations of the Hypocrites, He has unveiled their beliefs, their qualities, and made their goals clear so that the believers can be aware of them. [2]

 

He divided mankind into three groups in the beginning of Surah al-Baqarah: the believer, the disbeliever and the hypocrites.

 

He mentioned four verses concerning the believers, two verses concerning the disbelievers, and thirteen verses concerning the hypocrites due to their plentitude and the great harm and tribulation they bring to Islam and the Muslims. [3]

 

The harm they cause to Islam is truly severe for they claim to be Muslims, they claim to aid and support Islam, whereas in reality they are its enemies seeking to destroy it from within, covertly spreading their corruption and ignorance such that the unwary thinks that what they are upon is knowledge and right action.

 

 

By Allah! How many strongholds of Islam have they destroyed;

how many fortresses have they rendered to ruin; how many signposts of Islam have they effaced;

how many raised flags have they lowered;

and how many seeds of doubt have they attempted to sow in order to uproot the religion!

 

Islam and Muslims have always faced trial and tribulation from them, wave after wave of doubts do they assault at it, all the while thinking that they are doing right,

Unquestionably, it is they who are the corrupters, but they perceive [it] not.

[Surah al- Baqarah, verse 12]

 

They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it.

[Surah as-Saff, verse 8] [4]

 

having agreed to abandon the revelation and follow a course other than the one directed by it,

But the people divided their religion among them into sects – each faction, in what it has, rejoicing.

[Surah al Muminoon, verse 53]

 

inspiring to one another decorative speech in delusion.

[Surah al Anam, verse 112]

 

and because of this,

people have taken this Qur’an as [a thing] abandoned.”

[Surah al Furqan, verse 30]

 

[Source: Characteristics of the Hypocrites, page 15-18]

 

 Footnotes:

[1] Indeed, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire – and never will you find for them a helper  [Surah an Nisa, verse 145]

[2] They hypocrites are apprehensive lest a surah be revealed about them, informing them of what is in their hearts. Say, “Mock [as you wish]; indeed, Allah will expose that which you fear.” [Surah at-Tawbah, verse 64]

[3] As stated by Mujahid amongst others. Refer to as-Suyuti, ad-Durr al-Manthur [1/56]

[4] as Sa’di, Taysir al Kareem ar Rahman said, “It is Allah who has undertaken the task of aiding His religion, perfecting the truth with which He sent His messengers, and manifesting its light in all the regions of the earth, even though the disbelievers hate it. Even though they strive to the utmost of their abilities to extinguish His light, defeat and failure is their fate. They are like a person who blows air with his mouth in the direction of the Sun in the hope that he can extinguish its fire: never will he be able to do so, rather he just imputes his own intellect with deficiency and doltishness.”

 

[Must read] Bitter Consequences of Sin by Imaam ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah [rahimahullaah]


 

It is essential to know that sins and acts of disobedience are, necessarily, very harmful. Their harm effects upon the heart are akin to the harmful effects of poison upon the body, though the effects vary in their levels and intensities. So is there any evil or harm in this world, or in the Hereafter, except that it is due to sins and disobedience?

 

So what was it that expelled the two parents [i.e. Adam and Eve] from Paradise; the home of delight, bliss, splendor and joy; to the home of pain, sorrow and misfortune?

 

What was it that expelled Iblees [i.e. Satan] from the heavenly realms, causing him to be rejected and cursed; transforming him both inwardly and outwardly, so that his form became ugly and hideous – his inner form more hideous than his outer – replacing his nearness with remoteness, mercy with curse, his beauty with ugliness, from being in Paradise to being in the blazing Fire, from having faith to being an unbeliever, from having the patronage and friendship of Allaah, the Praiseworthy Guardian, to being the greatest enemy and opponent, from glorifying and praising Him to committing acts of unbelief, shirk, lies, deception and shamelessness, from being adorned with faith to being clothed in the garment of unbelief, sinfulness and disobedience, causing him to reach the deepest depths of despicability, plunging down in the sight of Allaah as far as it is possible to plunge; causing the anger of Allaah the Exalted to be upon him, making him an outcast – despised and humiliated – so that he became a leader for every sinner and criminal, becoming pleased with leadership for himself, after having reached the station of worship and nobility? O Allaah, we seek refuge in You from opposing Your command and falling into what You have forbidden.

 

What was it that caused the people of the earth to drown, to the extent that the water rose above even the mountain tops?

 

What was it that caused the violent winds to overcome the people of `Aad, such that it flung them down dead upon the face of the earth – as if they were lopped-off palm trunks – and it destroyed whatever dwellings and crops it came across, thus making them an example for nations until the Day of Resurrection?

Bitter Consequences of Sin

Bitter Consequences of Sin

What was it that caused the clouds of punishment to overcome the people of Shu’ayb, such that when these clouds were above their heads it rained scorching fire upon them? What was it that caused the Pharaoh and his people to be drowned in the ocean, and caused their souls to be transported to the Hellfire, so their bodies drowned and their souls burned?

 

What was it that caused Qaroon, his dwelling, wealth and family to sink down into the earth?

 

What was it that caused the destruction of those generations after Noah, and how they were afflicted with various punishments that caused their annihilation?

 

What was it that caused the destruction of the companions of Yaa Seen, with the clamorous shout, which destroyed them?

 

What caused there to be sent against the Children of Israa’eel enemies of great strength and might, plundering their homes, killing their men, enslaving their women and children, burning their dwellings, seizing their wealth, and then returning again a second time, destroying what was rebuilt after the first onslaught?

 

What was it that caused the various types of punishments to be set loose upon the Children of Israa’eel? Killing them, enslaving them, destroying their land and at times causing them to be oppressed by kings, whilst at another time causing them to be transformed into apes and swines -and finally the Lord took an oath that:

“He would certainly keep on sending against them, until the Day of Resurrection, those who will inflict themwith a humiliating torment.”

[Soorah al-A’raaf 7:167]

 

Imam Ahmad said: al-Waleed ibn Muslim related to us; that Safwaan ibn ‘Amr related to us; that `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Jubayr ibn Nufayr related; from his father, who said:

“When Cyprus was conquered and its people were dispersed and they started weeping to each other, I saw Abud-Dardaa sitting alone and weeping. So I said to him: O Abud- Dardaa!What makes you weep on this day that Allaah has granted strength and honor to Islaam and its people? So he said: Woe be to you O Jubayr! How insignificant the creation becomes to Allaah when they turn away from His command. In front of us is a nation who were evidently powerful and who had dominion, yet they abandoned Allaah’s command, so look what has become of them.”

[Reported by Imaam Ahmad in az-Zuhd (1/86) with an authentic (saheeh) chain of narration; as stated by Shaykh `Alee Hasan al-Halabee in his verification of the book. (p.67)]

 

 

`Alee ibn al-Ja’d said: Shu’bah ibn `Amr ibn Murrah informed us; I heard Abul- Bukhtaree say: I was informed by someone, who heard the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) saying:

“The people will not perish, until they have no excuse left for themselves.”

[Reported by Ahmad (4/260) and Abu Daawood (no.4347) with an authentic chain of narration]

 

 

Imaam Ahmad reports in his Musnad, from the hadeeth of Umm Salamah, who said: I heard Allaah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) saying:

“When acts of disobedience become widespread in my ummah, then Allaah may send punishment upon them all from Himself” So I said: 0 Allaah’s Messenger! Even if there are righteous people amongst them that day? So he replied: “Indeed!” So I said: How will that be? He replied: “They will be afflicted with what afflicts the people, then they will move on to the forgiveness of Allaah and His good pleasure.”

[Reported by Ahmad (6/304) and one of its narrators is Layth ibn Abee Sulaym, who is weak. However the hadeeth is established due to further supporting narrations. Consult Silsilatul – Ahaadeethus-Saheehah (no.1372) of Shaykh al-Albaanee]

 

[Ad-Daa’ wad-Dawaa’ (pp.65-67) by Imaam ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah]

 

“So, As You Do Unto Others, So Shall You Be Done Unto Likewise…”‏ by Ibn Qayyim


 

“…And He, Glorified and Most High, is Merciful (Rahim) and loves those who are merciful (ar-Ruhama’) and He is Merciful to His servants who are merciful. And He veils (the sins and mistakes) and loves the one who veils (the sins and mistakes) of His servants, and He is ‘Afuww (the One Who Pardons) and loves the one who pardons (his servants). He is Forgiving (Ghafur) and loves the one who forgives His servants, and He is Gentle and loves the gentle ones from amongst His servants, and He detests the rude (al-Fadh), impolite, obstinate (al-Qasi), merciless, and pompous.

 

He is Friendly and loves friendliness, and He is patient (Halim), and loves patience (hilm). He is Kind and loves piety (al-Birr) and its adherents. He is Just and loves justice, and He is the One Who accepts the excuses (from His servants when they make a mistake) and loves those who accept excuses from His servants. And (likewise) He recompenses His servant to the extent that these attributes are present or absent (within the servant).

 

So the one who pardons, He pardons him. And the one who forgives, He Forgives him. And the one who excuses, He excuses him. And the one who is just, He is Just towards him. And the one who befriends His servants, He will befriend him. And whoever is merciful to His creation, He is Merciful to him, and the one who does good for them, He will do good for Him. And whoever is generous towards them, He is Generous towards him, and whoever benefits them, He will benefit him. And the one who concealed (their sins), He will conceal (his sins), and the one who forgave (safaha) them, He will Forgive him.

 

And whoever pursues in finding their faults (‘awratahum), He will pursue his faults, and whoever disgraced them, He will disgrace him and expose him. And whoever prevented them from goodness, He will prevent His Goodness from him. And whoever causes them grief and sadness, Allah, the Most High, will cause him grief and sadness, and whoever plots (against them), He will plot against him, and whoever betrays them, He will betray him.

 

Whoever behaves with His servants with a (specific) quality, Allah, the Most High, will behave with him with that quality in this world and the Hereafter. For Allah, the Most High, deals with His servant to the same extent that the servant deals with His creation and that is why it is mentioned in the hadith:

  • “Whoever conceals the sins of a Muslim, Allah, the Most High, will conceal his sins in this world and the Hereafter. Whoever relieves a Mu’min from a burden from the burdens of this world, Allah, the Most High, will relieve him of distress from the distresses of the Day of Judgement. And whoever eases the situation of the one in straitened circumstances, Allah, the Most High, will ease for him his reckoning and whoever releases a Muslim from a contract he regrets, Allah will release him from his errors and whoever granted more time to the one in straitened circumstances due to his debt or unburdened him (of his debt), Allah, the Most High, will shade him under the Shade of His Throne.” 

[Muslim, at-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah]

 

In a hadith in at-Tirmidhi and elsewhere the prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said one day in his sermon:

  • “O gathering of those who have believed with their tongues but Faith has not yet entered their hearts! Do not harm the Muslims, and do not concern yourselves with their mistakes, for indeed he who concerns himself with the mistakes of his (Muslim) brother, Allah will concern Himself with his mistakes, and the one whose mistakes Allah is concerned with, He will disgrace him even if it is in the safety of his own home.” 

[Sahih at-Tirmidhi wal-Mishkah: 5044]

 

So, as you do unto others, so shall you be done unto (likewise). And be however you wish, for indeed Allah, the Most High, will behave with you how you behave with His servants.”

[Taken from al-Imam Ibn al-Qayyim’s “al-Wabil as-Sayyib” page: 54-55]

 

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