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[Must read] The ‘aqeedah of Abul-Hasan al-Ash’ari, which he died believing

November 14, 2013 Leave a comment

 

Abul-Hasan al-Ash ‘ari stated:
This is a list of the beliefs to which the followers of the Hadith and the Sunnah adhere:

 

1– Belief in Allah, His angels and His Messengers, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.

 
2– That Paradise is true and Hell is true, that the Hour will undoubtedly come, and that Allah will resurrect those who are in the graves.

 
3– Allah is above His Throne as He says: ~The Most Merciful rose over the Throne. (Qur’an 20: 5)

 
4– He has two hands, but we do not discuss how, as He says: ~I have created with Both My Hands.~ (Qur’an 38: 75)

 
5– He has two eyes, but we do not discuss how, as He says: ~Sailing under Our Eyes.~ (Qur’an 54: 14)

 
6– He has a Face, as He says: ~And there will remain the Face of your Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honour) (Qur’an 55: 27)
7– The names of Allah cannot be said to be something other than Allah, as the Mu’tazilites and Khawarij say.

 
8– They affirmed that Allah is All-Knowing, as He says: ~He has sent it down with His Knowledge) (Qur’an 4: 166) and: ~And no female conceives or gives birth except with His Knowledge. (Qur’an 35: 11)

 
9– They affirm that Allah can hear and see, and they do not deny that as the Mu’tazilites do.

 
10– They affirm that Allah has power or strength, as He says: ~Did they not consider that Allah Who created them was greater than them in strengthvs (Qur’an 41: 15)

 
11- They say that nothing happens on earth, good or evil, except what Allah wills.

 
12– Things happen by the will of Allah, as He says: ~And you do not will except that Allah wills. (Qur’an 81: 29) And as the Muslims say: What Allah wills happens and what He does not will does not happen.

 

13– They say that no one can do anything that Allah knows he is not going to do.

 
14– They affirm that there is no creator except Allah, and that people’s bad deeds are created by Allah  and that people’s actions are created by Allah, and that people are not able to create anything.

 
15– They say that the Qur’an is the word of Allah and is not created.

 
16– Whoever suggests that the uttered words of the Qur’an are created is an innovator in their view. It should not be said that the uttered words of the Qur’ an are created or not created.

 
17– They believe that Allah will be seen in a literal sense on the Day of Resurrection as the moon is seen on the night when it is full. The believers will see Him but the disbelievers will not see Him because they will be veiled from seeing Him. Allah says: ~No! Indeed, they [evil doers] will be veiled from seeing their Lord that Day) (Qur’an 83: 15). Moses asked Allah to let him see Him in this world, and Allah appeared to the mountain and made it collapse to dust (Qur’an 7: 143), so He showed him that he could not see Him in this world but he will see Him in the Hereafter.

 
18– They do not regard any Muslim as a disbeliever if he commits sin such as fornication, stealing and other major sins; they are believers even though they have committed major sins.

 
19– In their view, faith means believing in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, the divine decree both good and bad, sweet and bitter, and that what has missed them would never  have befallen them and what has befallen them would never have missed them.

 

20– Islam means bearing witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, according to what it says in the Hadith, and in their view Islam is something different from iman (faith, belief).

 
21– They affirm that Allah is the Controller of the hearts.

 
22– They affirm the intercession of the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and that it will be for those members of his Ummah who commit major sins; they affirm the torment of the grave, and that the cistern is true, the sirat is true and the Resurrection after death is true.

 
23– The Reckoning by Allah of His slaves is true and the standing before Allah (on the Day of Resurrection) is true.

 
24– They affirm that faith is both words and deeds; it may increase and decrease. They do not say that faith is created or not created.

 
25– They believe that the names of Allah are Allah.

The-aqeedah-of-Abu Hasan al ashari

26– They do not testify that anyone who commits a major sin will be in Hell, and they do not affirm that any individual among those who profess Islamic monotheism will be in Paradise. Rather Allah will put them wherever He wills. They believe that the matter is up to Allah: if He wills He will punish them and if He wills He will forgive them. They believe that Allah will bring some of those who profess tawheed out of Hell, according to what is mentioned in the reports from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

 
27- They denounce arguments about religion and disputes about the divine decree, and what the argumentative debate about  with regard to religious matters. They accept the sound reports which were transmitted by trustworthy narrators going all the way back to the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), and they do not ask how or why, because that is innovation.

 

28– They believe that Allah did not enjoin evil; rather He forbade it and enjoined good. He does not approve of evil even though He wills it.

 
29– They acknowledge the rights of those whom Allah chose to accompany His Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam); they recognize their virtues and refrain from discussing the disputes that arose among them.

 
30– They give precedence to Abu Bakr, then ‘Umar, then ‘Uthman, then ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with them all).

 
31– They affirm that they are the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and the best of all people after the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

 
32– They believe in the hadiths which came from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) including: «Allah descends to the lowest heaven and says: Is there anyone who will ask forgiveness?» as the hadith came from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

 
33– They adhere to the Qur’ an and Sunnah as Allah says: ~And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and His Messenger. (Qur’an 4: 59)

 
34– They believe in following the early generation of imams who did not introduce any innovation into their religion for which Allah did not give permission.

 
35– They affirm that Allah will come on the Day of Resurrection as He says: ~And your Lord comes, and the angels rank upon rank.} (Qur’an 89: 22)

 
36– And that Allah draws near to His creation however He wills, as  He says: ~And We are closer to him than his jugular vein [by Our Knowledge]. (Qur’an 50: 16)

 

37– They believe in offering Eid and congregational prayers behind any ruler, good or bad.

 
38- They affirm that wiping over the socks is Sunnah and is valid whether one is travelling or not.

 
39– They affirm that engaging in jihad against the polytheists is obligatory, from the time Allah sent His Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) until the last group fights the false Messiah and after that.

 
40– They believe that supplication should be said asking for the Muslim leaders to be guided aright, and that they should not rebel against them with the sword, and that they should not fight at times of fitnah.

 
41– They believe that the Dajjal will emerge and that ‘Eesa ibn Maryam (Jesus, son of Mary) will kill him.

 
42– They believe in Munkar and Nakeer, and in the miraculous ascent [of Prophet Muhammed (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) to heaven], and in the visions seen in dreams.

 
43– And (they believe that) the benefit of supplication for deceased Muslims and charity given on their behalf after death will reach them.

 
44– They believe that there are practitioners of witchcraft in the world, and that the practitioner of witchcraft is a disbeliever as Allah says, and that magic or witchcraft exists in this world.

 
45– They believe in offering the funeral prayer for any Muslim who dies, whether he was righteous or otherwise, and that they may be inherited from.

 
46– They affirm that Paradise and Hell are created entities.

 

47– They affirm that everyone who dies, dies at his appointed time, and everyone who is killed, is killed at his appointed time.

 
48– They affirm that provision comes from Allah, Who gives provision to His slaves, whether it is halal or haram.

 
49– The devil whispers to people and instils doubt and confusion.

 
50– It may so happen that Allah chooses to single out some of the righteous for signs that appear at their hands.

 
51– The Sunnah does not abrogate the Qur’an.

 
52– With regard to children who die, it is up to Allah: if He wills He will punish them and if He wills He do whatever He wants with them.

 
53– Allah knows what His slaves will do and has decreed that it will happen, and all things are in the hands of Allah.

 
54– They believe in patience in adhering to < what Allah has enjoined and refraining from what He has forbidden; sincerity (towards Allah) in actions; sincerity towards the Muslims; worshipping Allah alongside those who worship Him; avoiding major sins, fornication, false speech, minor sins, pride, arrogance, looking down on people and self-admiration.

 
55– They believe in shunning everyone who promotes innovation.

 
56– They believe in occupying oneself with reading the Qur’ an, studying reports of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), acquiring knowledge and studying fiqh with humility and a good attitude, doing favours, refraining from causing harm, refraining from backbiting, gossip and troublemaking, and checking on food and drink.

 
57– This is a summary of what they enjoin, do and believe. Everything that has been mentioned of their beliefs we believe and follow also, and we have no help but that of Allah; He is  sufficient for us and is the best disposer of affairs; His help we seek and in Him we put our trust and to Him is the final destiny.

 

[al-Khamees, Muhammad, I’tiqad Ahl as-Sunnah As-hab al-Hadeeth Sharh jumlah ma Hakahu ‘anhum Abul-Hasan aI-Ash ‘ari wa Qarraruhu fee Maqalatihi, p. 11-171. Dr. al-Khamees undertook a study of these basic principles.]

 

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Dispute between the Hell and Jannah- Few beneficial points from Riyad us Saaliheen

June 3, 2013 Leave a comment

 

Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (RadiAllahu anhu) reported: The Prophet Muhammed (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said:

There was a dispute between the Hell and Jannah.

The Hell said: “The haughty and proud are my inmates.” Jannah said: “The modest and the humble are my residents”. Thereupon, Allah the Exalted and Glorious (addressing Jannah) said:
“You are My Mercy, through you I shall show mercy to those whom I wish”. (And addressing the Hell), He said: “You are (the means) of My punishment by which I shall punish such of My slaves as I wish and each one of you would have its fill”.

[Muslim].

 

Commentary:

1] In this Hadith people who are termed as `modest’ and `humble’ are the rich in Faith and piety. They lead a life of patience and contentment. This Hadith gives glad tidings to such noble people. On the contrary, it has a threat of Hell for those who disobey Divine injunctions and are haughty and proud. Now, it is entirely one’s own choice which way he goes.

 
2] The dialogue between Jannah and Hell quoted in this Hadith is not something impossible. It is not at all difficult for Allah to create in them such intelligence and consciousness which can enable them to make a discussion on the subjects mentioned in the Hadith. Thus, there is no need to offer any justification for the veracity of such Ahadith.

These should, therefore, be taken as literally correct. This Hadith is mentioned in detail in Musnad Ahmad and is narrated by Abu Hurairah (RadiAllahu anhu) at greater length than in the narration of Abu Sa`id Al- Khudri (radiAllahu anhu) quoted in Kitab-ut-Tafsir (the Book of Commentary) of Sahih Al-Bukhari.

[End quote from Riyad us Saaliheen]

 

 

I (Dr Iftakhar Ahmed) say, that this hadith is also a refutation of Ashari/Jahmi belief who departed from the path of Salaf as Saalih. When we Salafis say that Allah speaks as it befits His Majesty but we do not know “how”, these Ashari and Jahmi comes up with  arguments  that “Speech is done only with  tongue  and lips” and therefore your (salafis) saying that Allah speaks  necessitates  that Allah too has tongue and lips (Astagfirullah).

 

We ask them regarding this hadith where Hell and Heaven dispute with each other by speaking to each other. Do you think it is done by tongue and lips? No. Its the power of Allah who can make speak anything just like our limbs will speak on the day of Judgement. And this is what Imam Nawawi (rahimahullah) said in his commentary.

 

Further readings about Ashari and Jahmi belief:

 

Paradise and Hell Have Already Been Created- Refuting belief of Mu’tazilah | Qaadariyyah | Jahmiyyah

May 21, 2013 Leave a comment

 

At-Tahaawi said, in his book on al-‘Aqeedah al-Salafiyyah (correct belief in accordance with that of the early generations of Islaam) that is known as al-‘Aqeedah al-Tahhaawiyyah.

“Paradise and Hell have already been created. They will never come to an end or cease to exist. Allaah (subhanahu wa’tala) created Paradise and Hell before the rest of creation, and He (subhanahu wa’tala) created inhabitants for each of them.

Whoever He (subhanahu wa’tala) wishes (will enter) Paradise by His grace and mercy, and whoever He (subhanahu wa’tala) wishes (will enter Hell) as a result of His (subhanahu wa’tala) justice.

Every person will behave according to that for which he was created, and his destiny will be that for which he was created; good deeds and evil deeds are foreordained for all men”.

 

Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abul-‘Izz al-Hanafi remarked, in his commentary on this text:

“With regard to his saying that Paradise and Hell have already been created, Ahl as-Sunnah agree that Paradise and Hell have been created and are in existence at the present moment. Ahlus-Sunnah continued to hold this view, until some odd ideas of the Mu’tazilah and Qaadariyyah came along, which denied that. These groups said: “Allaah will create them (i.e. Paradise and Hell) on the Day of Resurrection.” They said this because of their false arguments by means of which they seek to improve regulations on what Allaah (subhanahu wa’tala) should do; (they say) it befits Allaah (subhanahu wa’tala) to do this, or it does not befit Allaah (subhanahu wa’tala) to do that. They compare Him to His creation and their actions. This is a kind of anthropomorphism with regard to deeds; they have allowed the ideas of Jahmiyyah (a sect of Mu’tazilah named after the deviant, Jahm ibn Safwan) to creep into their thinking, and have become mu’attalah (those who deny that Allaah can see). They said, “It  does not make sense for Paradise to be created before the time of reward, because it will not be used or inhabited for a very long time. They rejected the aayaat and reports that contradict these false notions they seek to project onto Allaah (subhanahu wa’tala). They misinterpreted the texts and accused those who disagreed with them of going astray and concocting bid’ah”.

 

Proofs from the Qur’aan and Hadeeth in support of this are, for example:
“Race with one another in hastening towards forgiveness from your Lord, and Paradise the width whereof is as the width of the heaven and the earth, prepared for those who believe in Allaah and His Messengers. That is the Grace of Allaah, which He bestows on whom He is pleased with. And Allaah is the Owner of Great Bounty”. (57:21) “…

 

for Paradise as wide as are the heavens and the earth, prepared for al-Muttaqun” (3:133)

 

“And fear the fire, which is prepared for the disbelievers” (3:131)
“And indeed he (Muhammad) saw him (Jibreel) at a second descent (ie another time), near Sidrat al-Muntahaa (lote tree of the utmost boundary (beyond which none can pass), near it is the Paradise of Abode” (53:13-15)
The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) saw Sidrat al-Muntahaa, a tree in Heaven, and near it, Paradise, as is mention in al-Bukhaari, and Muslim in the hadith of Anas (radiAllahu anhu). At the end of this narrative of al-Israa, the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Then Jibreel brought me to Sidrat al-Muntahaa which was veiled in colours indescribable. Then I entered Paradise, and its lights were of pearls and its soil was musk”.

 
Muslim, Abu Dawud and Imaam Ahmad report from Abu Hurayrah (radiAllahu anhu) that the Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said,

“When Allaah (subhanahu wa’tala) created Paradise and Hell, He sent Jibreel to Paradise, saying “Go and look at it and at what I have prepared therein for its inhabitants”. So he went and looked at it and at what Allaah had prepared therein for its inhabitants…. then He sent him to Hellfire saying, “Go and look at it and what I have prepared therein for its inhabitants” So he looked at it and saw that it was in layers, one above the other….”

Muslim reports from Aishah (radiAllahu anhu) that there was a solar eclipse in the time of the Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and he said,

“Whilst I was standing here I saw everything that you have been promised, I even saw myself picking some of the fruits of Paradise, when you saw me stepping forward. And I saw Hellfire, parts of it consuming other parts, when you saw me stepping backward”.

al-Bukhaari and Muslim report from Ibn ‘Abbas the same incident,

“I saw Paradise and I tried to take a bunch of its fruit. If I had managed to do so, you would have eaten from it until the end of time. And I saw the Fire of Hell, and I have never seen anything so horrific or terrifying. I saw that the majority of its inhabitants are women.”

Muslim also reports from Anas that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said,

“By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, if you had seen what I saw, you would laugh little and cry much.” They said, “What did you see, O Messenger of Allaah?”, He said, “I saw Paradise and Hell”.

The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) also ascended into jannah on the night of Mi’raj in his ‘Isra (night journey): for example –

* “…I saw four rivers flowing out from beneath Sidrat al-Muntahaa, two visible and two hidden.”

(Muslim, Kitaab al-Imaan, Baab al-‘Israa, 1/150, no.164)

* “Whilst I was walking in Paradise I saw a river whose banks were domes of hollow pearls and I asked, “What is this, O Jibreel?” He said,

“This is al-Kawthar which your Rabb has given to you”.

(from Anas ibn Maalik, Sahih al-Bukhaari, Kitaab ar-Riqaaq, Baab fil-Hawd, Fath al-Baari, 11/464)
* al-Bukhaari and Muslim report from Jaabir that the Messenger of Allaah said,

“I entered Paradise where I saw ar-Rumaysa, the wife of Abu Talhah. And I heard footsteps and asked, “Who is that?” He (Jibreel) said, “That is Bilaal”. And I saw a palace with women in its courtyard. I asked, “Whose is this?” They said, It is for ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab”

(Mishkaat al-Masaabih, 3/226)
Imaam Ahmed, Ibn Hibbaan and al-Haakim report from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said,

“The children of the believers are in Paradise, being cared for by Ibraahim (alaihissalam)

[and in the narration of Abu Nu’aym, ad-Dawylami, and Ibn Asakir it adds- “and Sarah, until they give them back to their parents on the day of Resurrection”]

 
al-Bukhaari and Muslim also report from ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar (radiAllahu anhu) that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said,

“When anyone of you dies, he will be shown his position morning and evening. If he is one of the people of Paradise then he will be one of the people of Paradise, and if he is one of the people of Hell, then he will be one of the people of Hell, and he will be told, “This is your position, until Allaah (subhanahu wa’tala) resurrects you on the Day of Resurrection”.

According to al-Muwatta of Imaam Maalik and as-Sunaan, Abu Dawood, “Ka’b ibn Maalik said the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said,

“Verily the soul of the believer is a bird hanging on to the trees of Paradise, until Allaah Swt returns it to its body on the day of Resurrection”

This makes it clear that souls will enter Paradise before the Day of Resurrection.
As for the specious arguments of those who say that Hell has not been created yet, they say: If it was already created now, then it would of necessity have to come to an end of the Day of Resurrection and everyone in it would have to perish because Allaah says: “Everything will perish save His Face” (28:88) and “Everyone shall taste death..” (3:185) The response to this is: If you mean that Paradise does not exist until the Trumpet is blown and people are resurrected from their graves, then this is incorrect and is refuted by the evidence quoted above and other proofs which we have not mentioned here. If you mean that Allaah (subhanahu wa’tala) has not yet completed the creation of everything that He will prepare for the inhabitants of Paradise and that He is still creating more and more things in it, and that when the believers enter Paradise, Allaah (subhanahu wa’tala) will create even more things in it, then this is true and cannot be refuted, and the evidence that you give can only mean this, but when you use the aayah – “Everything will perish save His Face” – as evidence, your problem is that you misinterpret this aayah. Using it to prove that Paradise and Hell do not yet exist is like your colleagues using it to prove that they will both be destroyed and their inhabitants will all perish! You and your scholars did not understand the aayah properly; only the leaders (great scholars) of Islaam have understood it properly. They say that “everything” for which Allaah (subhanahu wa’tala) has decreed destruction and oblivion “will perish” but Paradise and Hell have been created to last forever and never pass away, as has the Throne, which forms the roof of Paradise.

 
“It was suggested that it meant that everything would perish except His dominion, or whatever was done for His sake. Another suggestion was that when Allaah (subhanahu wa’tala) revealed the word: “Whatever is on it will perish” – the angels said, “The people of earth are doomed”, and hoped that they would remain. Allaah said that the people of heaven and earth would perish and said, “And invoke not any other ilaah along with Allaah, Laa ilaaha illaa Huwaa. Everything will perish save His Face” (28:88) because He is the Living and does not die. The angels realise that they too were destined to die. Their words should be taken in the light of and reconciled with other clear and unambiguous reports that prove that both Paradise and Hell are eternal”.
(Sharh at-Tahaawiyyah, p.479, see also Siddeeq Hasan Khan, Yaqadhah ula al-‘i’tibaar, p. 37 and ‘Aqeedah as-Safarini 2/230)

Shaykh Abdul-Qadir al-Jilanee on al-Istawaa

May 14, 2013 Leave a comment

 

Shaykh Abdul-Qadir al-Jilanee is reported to have said:

“It is essential to carry the Attribute of al-Istawaa upon it’s apparent sense – without ta’weel, and that He Ascended in Person over the Throne.

 

Istawaa does not mean sitting or touching – as the Mujassima and Karraamiyyah say.

 

Nor does it mean grandeur and highness – as the Ash’ariyyah say.

 

Nor does it mean conquering and dominating as the Mu’tazila say.

 

None of this is related in the Sharee’ah.

 

Neither has this been related by any one of the Salaf as-Saalih and the Taabi’een.

Nor from the Ashaabul Hadeeth.

 

Rather it is related from them that they carried the meaning of Istawaa with it’s apparent meaning.”

[‘Gunya at- Taalibeen’ (1/50)]

 

The Creed of the Pious Predecessors In Regards to The Attributes of Allah

October 8, 2011 Leave a comment

All praise is for Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship, except Allah, Who Has no partners, Who is Attributed with Majestic and Perfect Attributes, Who is Free from all that is not befitting his Perfectness. And I bear witness that Muhammad is the slave and messenger of Allah, May Allah’s Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon him, his family and his companions.

 

The subject of the Divine Attributes and Names is one of the greatest requirements of Islam, and one of the most noble of all sciences, and one of the most critical in the minds of people. Great disputes have occurred in this subject, due to what the innovators invented by engaging and delving into Allah’s Essence, Names and Attributes.

 

The most dangerous of these innovations: what was invented by the Jahmiyyah, who attributed imperfections to Allah, and denying the Attributes of Perfection, which Allah Himself Affirmed for himself and which were affirmed for Him by the Prophet –Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam-. Then it was what the Mu`tazilah innovated, and other sects.

 

Many Muslims were affected by this innovation, and engaged in it, which caused them to divide, and caused the appearance of those who denied Allah’s Names and Attributes, those who denied His Attributes while affirming His Names, and those who affirmed His Names and some of His Attributes. There was also the condemned Tawil, and a lot of people were deviated due to these innovated methodologies, especially in the present era in which different cultures have mixed with each other, and the media is used to spread these beliefs. Also, in this era, the truth has become strange for some people, and logic is used in many branches of knowledge, away from Divine Revelation. Today the importance of the Names and Attributes of Allah, which increases the faith of a man and makes him aware of the Greatness of the Creator, has become less.

 

Here we will mention a brief introduction to the belief of the pious predecessors, and with Allah is success :

Know, May Allah Have Mercy upon you, that the pious Salaf and the Imams of Sunnah, were unanimous in their sayings about faith in Allah and testifying to His Unity, and that Allah is described by His Attributes mentioned in His Book (Qur’an) and the authentic sayings of His Messenger –Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam-. So they passed the texts as they came without distortion, denying them, speaking about their how-ness, or resembling them to creation.

 

The methodology of the Pious Predecessors in Allah’s Attributes has three foundations:

1. To affirm for Allah the Attributes that He or His Prophet –Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam- affirmed for Him.

To believe in them, and that Allah Praised Himself with these Names and Attributes. The evidence for this is His Saying: {He is All-Hearing and All-Seeing}, {Allah! No one has the right to be worshipped except He, the Ever-Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists} [2:255], {He is All-Knowing, All-Wise”}, {Ar-Rahman over the Throne Rose (Istawa)} [20:5], and many other ayat, and hadiths too.

– Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal said:

“We worship Allah with His Attributes as He described Himself … we do not exceed the Quran and Hadeeth. We say as He said, and we describe Him as He described Himself, and we do not exceed that. We believe in all of the Quran, the muhakam and the mutashabeh.” (1)

– Abdur-Rahman Bin Al-Qasim (d. 191 H.), the companion of Imam Malik, said:

“It is not permissible for anyone to describe Allah except with that which He described Himself with in the Quran, and one is not to resemble His (Allah’s) two Hands with anything, nor His Face with anything, but he is to say: ‘He (Allah) has two Hands as He described Himself in the Quran, and He has a Face as He described Himself’. He is to stop at what Allah described Himself with in The Book (Quran), there is no like to Him, nor a similar, he is Allah la ilaha illa huwa (no diety is worthy of worship but He) as He described Himself.” (2)

 

 

2. To believe that Allah is Free from any likeness to His creation.

The basis for this is the Saying of Allah –translation of the meaning-: {There is nothing like unto Him} [42:11], {Do you know of any who is similar to Him?} [19:65], {Nor is there to Him any equivalent.} [112:4]
– Ishaq bin Rahwaih (d. 238 H.) said:

“Tashbeeh (resembling/likening Allah to creation) is to say: ‘Hand like a hand” or ‘Similar to a hand’, or ‘Hearing like a hearing’ or ‘Similar to a hearing’, so if one says: ‘Hearing like a hearing or similar to a hearing’, then this is Tashbeeh. But if one says like Allah –The Exalted- said, Yad (Hand), Sam` (Hearing), and Basar (Sight), without saying: how, or saying: like a hearing or similar to a hearing, then this is not tashbeeh.” (3)

 

3. Not to delve into the kayfiyyah (How-ness; reality) of Allah’s Attributes which we have no knowledge of.

The evidence for this is His Saying –translation of the meaning-: {and they will never encompass anything of His Knowledge, except that which He Wills} [2:255].
– Wakee` Bin Al-Jarrah (d. 197 H.) said, regarding Allah’s Attributes:

“We submit to these Hadiths as it came, and we do not say: ‘How is this?’ nor ‘Why was this sent down?’ ” (4)

 

The Belief in the Attributes is the same as the Belief in the Essence

The belief of the Salaf and Ahl Assunnah in Allah’s Attributes is like their belief in His Essence.
Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi (d. 463 H.) :

“As for speech regarding the Attributes, then what has been reported in the authentic Sunan (books of Hadith), the way of the Salaf is to affirm them, and to carry them upon their dhahir (apparent meaning), and to deny (knowledge of) kayfiyyah (i.e. Their true nature, how they are) and to negate tashbeeh (likening or resemblance to creation) for them… and the principle in this matter is: That speaking about the Attributes is a branch of speaking about the Essence (Dhat), and thus follows it exactly and takes its example. So if it was known that the affirmation of the Lord (Rabb) of all the worlds is an affirmation of existence, and not the affirmation of the true nature (i.e. the how-ness, kayfiyyah of the Essence), it would be the same with the Attributes, it is an affirmation of their existence (that Allah does have these Attributes) and not affirmation of defining (their nature) and speaking of its kayfiyyah (how they are).” (5)

 

Abu Umar Muhammad bin Qudamah (6) (d. 607 H.) said in some verses of poetry:

And the saying regarding the Attributes O my brothers ** Is like that of the Essence, and knowledge with clearification (of the correct belief)
is to pass them on (affirm them) without disbelief ** without Tashbih or transgression (7)

 

Their belief in all of Allah’s Attributes was upon one method, they didn’t differ in their belief between the Attributes, they applied the same method to all of the Attributes:

– Al-Waleed bin Muslim said: “I asked Al-Awza`I, Ath-Thawri, Malik bin Anas, and Al-Layth bin Sa`d about the Hadeeths of Sifat (The Attributes), and they said: «Pass them on as they came.»
Sufyan Ibn `Uyaynah (d. 198 H.) said: «Everything that Allah described Himself with in the Quran, its interpretation is its recitation, without (asking) how, and without likening Him (to creation).» (8)

 

Tawil is the way of the Khalaf (Later generations after the time of the Salaf)

It has not been proven that any of the pious predecessors made tawil of the Attributes of Allah, nor distorted its meaning. Contrary to that, they were all agreed upon the creed to believe in them without tawil, and this is well-known from them, and many scholars have testified to this throughout the centuries. We will mention a few of these scholars:

Imam Tirmidhi (d. 270 H.) said in his Sunan:

“This is how it has been reported from Imam Malik, Sufyan bin `Uyainah and `Abdullah bin Mubarak, that they said about these narrations, ‘Pass them without getting into their ‘how-ness’’. This is the saying of the scholars of Ahl As-Sunnah Wal-Jama`ah. As for the Jahamiyah, then they rejected these narrations and said that this is tashbeeh [resembling Allah to His creation].
In more than one place in the Qur’an, Allah Mentioned His Yad (Hand), Basar (Sight) and Sam` (Hearing); The Jahamiyyah made tawil of these ayat, and interpreted it differently than how the people of knowledge interpreted it, and they said: Allah did not Create Adam with His Hand’, they said: ‘The meaning of yad (hand) here (meaning in the ayah [38:75]) is ‘power’ (quwwah).” (9)

Al-Husain Al-Baghawi (d. 516H.) said, after speaking about several ayat and hadiths regarding Allah’s Attributes:

“Upon this [creed] were the Salaf of this nation of Islam, and the scholars of Sunnah. They all received these with faith and acceptance, while avoiding likening Him to His creation or making Taweel, and rendering its knowledge [of how-ness] to Allah” (10)

 

Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi (d. 620 H.) said in his book “Lum`at Al-I`tiqad”:

“And upon this were the Salaf, and the Imams who came after them, may Allah Be Pleased with them; All of them were upon agreement on affirming and passing on the Attributes that are in the Book of Allah (Quran) and what was reported in the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah without making taweel of them.”
He also said in the same book, after mentioning several ayat and Hadeeth of Sifat (Attributes): “This, and what is similar to it, the Salaf were upon consensus on transmitting and accepting it, and they didn’t reject it, nor made taweel of it, nor resembled it to creation. “

This is just a sample of sayings of some of the scholars in different eras, and there are many others whom we did not mention.

Authoring on the Creed of the Pious Salaf

From the ones who authored books on the beliefs of the pious predecessors and narrated their sayings in this subject, in books of Tafsir of the Qur’an include:

`Abur-Razzaq As-San`ani, Ishaq bin Rahwaih, Baqi bin Mukhallad, `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Hatim, Ibn Jarir At-Tabari, Abu Bakr bin Al-Mundhir, Abu Bakr bin `Abdul-`Aziz, Abu Ash-Shaikh Al-Asfahani, Abu Bakr bin Merdawaih, and others.
All who are mentioned above passed away before 450 H.

And similarly those who mentioned them in books on “Sunnah”, “Refutation of Jahamiyah” and “Fundamentals of Religion”, some examples are:

* “Refutation of Jahamiyyah” by Muhammad `Abdullah Al-Ju`fi, the teacher of Imam Bukhari.
* “Khalq Af`al Al-`Ibad” by Al-Imam Al-Bukhari.
* “As-Sunnah” by Abu Dawud
* “As-Sunnah” by Abu Bakr Al-Athram
* “As-Sunnah” by Abdullah son of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal
* “As-Sunnah” by Hanbal bin Ishaq
* “As-Sunnah” by Abu Bakr Al-Khallal
* “As-Sunnah” by Abu Ash-Shaykh Al-Asfahani
* “As-Sunnah” by Abul-Qasim At-Tabarani
* “As-Sunnah” by Ibn Mandah
* “Usool As-Sunnah” by Ibn Abi Zamanin
* “Al-Sharee`ah” by Al-Ajurri.
* “Al-Usool” by Abu Umar At-Talmanki
* “Refuting the Jahmiyyah” by Uthman Ad-Darimi
* “Refuting the Jahmiyyah” by Ibn Mandah
* “Refuting the Jahmiyyah” by Ibn Abi Hatim
And many others. Some of the mentioned above are from the pious Salaf, and the rest were from the generations before 500 H.

The four Imams, the two Sufyans (Ath-Thawri and Ibn `Uyaynah), the two Hammads (ibn Zayd and ibn abi Salamah) and the two Ibn Abi Shaybah’s (Abu Bakr and Abu Ja`far), Abu Yusuf, Al-Layth b. Sa`d, Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasa’i, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, Al-‘Awza’ii, Ibn Abi Layla, Abu `Ubaid Al-Qasim bin Sallam, Ishaq bin Rahwaih, Abu Hatim Ar-Razi, Muhammad bin Nasr Al-Marwazi and many others were all on the same creed (aqeedah), upon the madhhab of the Pious Salaf.

We ask Allah to Benefit everyone from this site and Guide anyone who opposes the Book and Sunnah. Certainly, He is Able to Do that.
And May Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon Our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions.

 

(1) Narrated by Ibn Battah in “Al-Ibanah Al-Kubra”
(2) Narrated by Ibn Abi Zamanin in “Usool As-Sunnah” (p.75)
(3) Narrated by his student At-Tirmidhi in his Sunan (2/42).
(4) Narrated by Abdullah the son of Imam Ahmad in his book “As-Sunnah” (1/267) with a sahih chain.
(5) “Dham At-Tawil” by Ibn Qudamah (p.15) with a sahih chain; Siyar A`lam An-Nubala by Adh-Dhahabi (18/283) with a different sahih chain.
(6) The brother of Muwaffaq Ad-Deen Abdullah bin Qudamah, the Author of “Al-Mughni”, and “Lum`at Al-I`tiqad”.
(7) “Dhail Tabaqat Al-Hanabilah” by Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali (3/121)
(8) “Kitab As-Sifat” by Ad-Daraqutni (p.70)
(9) “Al-Jame` Al-Kabir” (Sunan At-Tirmidhi) (2/42-43)
(10) “Sharh As-Sunnah” by Al-Baghawi (1/170)

 

 

Does the Ayah ‘And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.’ imply that Allah is everywhere?

October 6, 2011 Leave a comment

Does the Ayah ‘And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.’ imply that Allah is everywhere?

 

{و نحن أقرب إليه من حبل الوريد}

If Allah is omnipresent [in His essence] as He said in the Qur’an: ‘And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein,’[1] [and as understood by many people] then how was the revelation sent to the messengers & prophets?

 

Allah’s knowledge [2] & power [3] is everywhere and in every place; Allah, the Most Exalted, Himself is above His Arsh, separate from His creation in a manner that befits His majesty. With regards to the aforementioned Ayah, then the correct tafseer

according to the understanding of the Salaf [pious predecessors] [4] is that it refers to the knowledge of Allah or to that of the angels of Allah that have been commanded by Him to record the actions of all human beings.[5]

 

The following example is useful in illustrating that what is meant by ‘And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein,[6]’ actually refers to the angles. When it is said that so & so king or leader is at war with so and so king or leader, what is actually implied is that those who are fighting against each other in reality are the soldiers on the battle field and not the kings and leaders themselves.

 

In the following Ayah, the recording angels which have been mentioned, have been commanded by Allah to record the actions and deeds of all human beings, so these angels are closer to each person then his or her own jugular vein.‘(Remember) that the two receivers (recording angels) receive (each human being), one sitting on the right and the one on his left (to note his or her action).’[7]

 

And Allah knows best.

 

Footnotes:

 

[1] Surah 50 Qaf Ayah no: 16. [TN]

 

[2] Refer to the saying of Imam Mãlik bin Anas [d.179 AH] ‘Indeed Allah is above the heavens & His knowledge is in every place. Narrated by Imam Abdullah bin Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal in ‘As-Sunnah page 5, & Imam Abu Dawud in ‘Masaail of Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal page 263. [TN]

 

[3] It was said to Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal: Allah is above the seven heavens and above His Arsh, separate from His creation in a manner that befits His majesty and His power & knowledge is in every place. He replied: Yes. Allah is above His Arsh and nothing escapes His knowledge. Reported by Imam Al-Khalaal in ‘As-Sunnah’ and Imam Ibn Qayyim narrated it in ‘Ijtimaaul-Al-Juyoosh’ page 77. [TN]

 

[4] Refer to the abridged edition of Tafseer Al-Baghawi [d.516 AH] by Dr Abdullah bin Ahmed bin Ali Zaid, printed by Darus-Salaam, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Surah 50 Qaf Ayah no: 16, page 892: [‘what is meant by] We are nearer to you is: nearer to you by [Allah] having all the knowledge. [TN]

 

[5] Refer to Bayaanu-Talbeesil- Al-Jahmiyyah of Sheikul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, Volume 5 page 315, printed by King Fahad Complex, Madinah, KSA, 1426 AH, edited by Dr. Sulaiman Al-Ghafees, in which Imam Ibn Taymiyyah has discussed in depth that either the meaning of And We are nearer to him then his jugular vein is either the knowledge of Allah or that of the Angles; and has reconciled both meanings in a beautiful manner and refuted all the objections and doubts that might arise or have risen from the people of innovation. [TN]

 

[6] It has been narrated by Ibnul-Mundhir on the authority of Juwaibir who asked the student of Abdullah Ibn Abbas [may Allah be pleased with them both], Ad-Dahhaak regarding the saying of Allah ‘And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein’ Ad-Dahhaak replied: There is nothing more closer to the son of Adam then his jugular vein and Allah is nearer to him then that [by His knowledge]. Refer to Addurrul-Al-Manthoor Fee At-Tafseeri bil-Ma’thoor by Jalalud-Deen As-Suyutee [d. 911AH] Volume 7 page 517, printed by Darul-Ahyaa At-Turaath Al-Arabi first edition 1421 AH/2001 CE.

 

[7] Surah 50 Qaf Ayah no: 17. [TN]

 

Fataawaa Ahlil-Hadeeth, Book of Iman – Page 175

A Refutation of Those who Accuse Ahlus-Sunnah of Confining Allaah to a Place

October 3, 2011 Leave a comment

Translated by Ahmed Abu Turaab

 

Questioner: Who are the kuroobiyoon [Cherubim] Angels?

Al-Albaani: Who are the kuroobiyoon Angels? As far as I know, there is no hadith in which a mention of this name has been made of the Angels, ‘the kuroobiyoon Angels.’ And in reality for thirty years this name had not passed by me in the hadiths which I had read in hundreds if not thousands of books, most of which were manuscripts, until [finally] I heard a mention of them in Munaa during Hajj.

I was sitting during a calm, beautiful night during the days of Munaa speaking to some of our Egyptian, Syrian and other brothers from Ansaar as-Sunnah, when a Shaikh came in, gave salaam, sat down and started listening [to what was being said]. After I stopped speaking for a short while he entered the discussion and started speaking.

It became apparent from what he said that he was from those who had studied at Azhar University and who harboured a hatred against the Salafi da’wah or the da’wah to tawheed, and that he was affected by some of the false claims which are attributed to the group of tawheed in all the Muslim lands, whether here or Egypt or Syria or any other place.

So he started to attack and say that the Wahaabi da’wah was a good call but [the problem was] that they liken Allaah to the creation.

So I asked him, ‘How is that?’

He replied that they say that Allaah the Mighty and Majestic–Subhaanallaah he was declaring the Quraan to have a mistake without even realising it–he said, ‘They say that Allaah rose over the Throne.’

So I said, ‘Is that their saying or the saying of the Lord of all the worlds?’

He corrected himself and said that they explain the aayah to mean that Allaah is sitting on His Throne. I said to him: my brother, the difference between them and those who oppose them is not in likening the Lord of the worlds to the creation since they are united that it is falsehood.

Rather, the difference is in whether it is correct to interpret [the word used in the aayah] ‘istiwaa’ [rose over] to mean isteelaa [conquered] or is the correct interpretation that istiwaa means ista’laa [ascended over]? So I started talking about this topic at length.

And naturally the summary of the Salafi creed in this issue is that Allaah has the characteristic of being above all things [fawqiyyah]. So he latched on to this [statement] and said, ‘Is it possible [to believe] that Allaah the Mighty and Majestic is above the Throne? That would mean that we have situated him in a place.’

So I said to him, ‘No, this is a mistake on your part and we declare ourselves to be free from a belief which confines Allaah the Mighty and Majestic to a place whereas He is the All-High, the Most Great.’ Then I started to debate with him in a specific way and so said to him …’

 

Al-Albani: Do you agree with me that Allaah was and there was nothing [in existence] with Him?

The Azhari Shaikh: Of course.

Al-Albani: Was the Throne there when Allaah was?

The Azhari Shaikh: No.

Al-Albani: So Allaah was and there was nothing with Him and then He created the Throne?

The Azhari Shaikh: Yes.

I carried on with him in this manner and then said: We are now on earth, what is above us?

The Azhari Shaikh: The sky.

Al-Albani: Then?

The Azhari Shaikh: The second.

And we carried on like this until we came to the seventh. Then I said to him, ‘What is above the seventh?’

The Azhari Shaikh: The Throne.

I said–and here is the crux of the matter– what is above the Throne?

The Azhari Shaikh: The Kuroobiyoon Angels.

So this was the first time in thirty years that I heard this name. I said, ‘What? The kuroobiyoon angels are above the Throne?’ We know that it is the Creator of the Throne who is above the [Mighty] Throne according to the aforementioned aayah and the Salaf’s interpretation of it [which states that] He rose over the Throne, i.e., ascended over it, and as those relied upon in this matter said:

And the Lord of the Throne is above the Throne but
Without describing Him as being in a place or being connected [to the Throne]

So Allaah is in no need of the worlds, but for the first time I was [now] hearing that it is the kuroobiyoon Angels that are above the Throne, [so I asked him], ‘Do you have an aayah which establishes, firstly, that there are angels called, ‘The kuroobiyoon Angels?’

The Azhari Shaikh: No.

Al-Albani: Okay. Do you have a hadith in which a mention of them has been made with this name?

The Azhari Shaikh: No.

Al-Albani: So then where did you get this aqidah that above the Throne are the Kuroobiyoon Angels?

The Azhari Shaikh: This is what our Shaikhs at the noble Azhar University taught us.

So I said how strange. I know that [from what] the Azhari scholars teach their students in their lectures concerning that which is connected to the principles of aqidah and Usool al-Fiqh is that, ‘[Points of] aqidah are not established through aahaad hadith which are authentic,’ so how have they taught you a point of aqidah that is not mentioned in the Quraan nor the Sunnah? How have you come to believe this?

He was dumbfounded.  I continued and said to him, ‘Imagine that those angels who you call the Kuroobiyoon are above the [Mighty] Throne–what is above them?

So he stopped.  Baffled.

And I had already spoken to him about …

And I had already spoken to him about the fact that Allaah was and there was nothing with Him … so there was nothing there [with Him], thereafter He said, ‘Be!’ and the creation was.  If we conclude that we haven’t reached the Throne yet and in your opinion those angels are above the Throne: then what is above the Throne?  Nothing or something [wujood/existence/being/entity]?

The Azhari Shaikh: No, nothing.

[So I said] because we had agreed that nothing was in existence before Allaah the Blessed and Most High created the heavens and the earth … Allaah was and nothing was with Him … so before Allaah created anything there was nothing–so when your knowledge leads you to understand that the Kuroobiyoon angels are above the Throne and that nothing from the universe is there after that, the creation having ended … [thereafter] when the Salafis say that Allaah the Blessed and Most High rose over, i.e., ascended over, the [Mighty] Throne–why do you accuse them of having confined Allaah the Mighty and Majestic to [a place in] His universe when there is no universe there?

For the universe is limited and restricted and in our opinion the end of the universe and its highest part is the Throne and in your opinion it is the Throne and then above it are the ‘Kuroobiyoon Angels,’ and then nothing after that.

So the correct aqidah according to both the intellect and the text is truly that of the Pious Predecessors–because they did not say that Allaah is in a place, as you [falsely] assume, because there is no ‘place’ beyond the Throne, only total and complete nonexistence [of anything] except Allaah the Blessed and Most High.

But what is the matter with you when you fled from that which you accused the Salafis of, [something] which they are [in fact] free of–since [we say that] Allaah is not in a place because there is no universe or place after the [Mighty] Throne, Allaah having ascended over it–but what’s the matter with you fleeing from affirming this attribute for Allaah the Blessed and Most High, i.e., the attribute of declaring Him completely free of any likeness to His creation and not ascribing the qualities of the creation to Him [tanzeeh], because He is not in the universe.

So how is it that you say He is everywhere, you confine Him to being inside His universe which He created after it was not in existence?

So you are the Mushabbihah, and you are the Mujassimah [anthropomorphists].

And we the Salafis are nothing other than those who go by what Allaah the Most High said, ‘There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer,’ [Shuraa 42:11] and upon this aayah, upon [the meaning contained in] its beginning and end, we declare Him, the Most High, to be totally and utterly free of any likeness to His creation and do not ascribe the qualities of the creation to Him [tanzeeh], whilst affirming [His] Attributes as befits His Majesty and Exaltedness.

Fataawaa Jeddah, 17.

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