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Ibn Taymiyyah Concerning Predestination (Qadar)

August 27, 2014 Leave a comment

 

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah  (may Allah have mercy on him and reward him greatly) said:

“The viewpoint of Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jamaa ‘ah on this issue is that which is indicated by the Qur’an and Sunnah, and that which was followed by the Sahaba (Companions), the Muhaajiroon (Emigrants to Madeenah) and Ansaar (Helpers, Muslim residents of Madeenah), and those who followed them in truth. This view is that Allah is the Creator and Sovereign of all things, which includes all independent entities and their attributes, such as people’s deeds and other things.

 

Whatever He wills happens, and whatever He does not will does not happen. Nothing can happen except by His will and decree. Nothing is beyond Him if He wills it; rather, He is the One Who is Able to do all things, and He does not will anything but He is able to do it. Allah knows what has happened and what is yet to come; if it is not to happen, He knows how it would have been if it had happened. This includes people’s actions and other things. Allah, the Exalted, decreed the decrees of His creation before He created them; He decreed their lifespans, their provision and their deeds, and wrote that down, and He wrote down their ultimate destiny, who will be blessed and who will be doomed.

 
So they (Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jamaa ‘ah) believe that He created all things, that He is Able to do all things, that His will encompasses all that exists, and that He knew and decided and wrote all things before they came into being. “

Majmoo ‘ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/449.

 

He [rahimahullah] also said:

“The Salaf (Pious Predecessors) and aaimmah (the leading scholars) of this ummah are agreed that people are commanded to do that which Allah has commanded them, and are forbidden to do that which Allah has forbidden. They are agreed on their belief in His promise and His warning, which are spoken of in the Qur’an and Sunnah.
They are agreed that there is no justification for anyone with regard to neglecting any obligatory duty or committing any forbidden act; but Allah has perfect evidence against His slaves. “

Majmoo ‘ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/452.

 

Read: “If the people one day want revival, then Al-Qadar (Divine Predestination) has no choice but to answer.”

 

 

“Among the things that are agreed upon by the Salaf (Pious Predecessors) and aaimmah (the leading scholars) of this ummah is their belief in Divine will and Predestination (al-Qadaa ‘ wal-Qadar), and that Allah is the Creator of all things. What He wills happens, and what He does not will does not happen. Allah sends astray whomsoever He wills, and He guides whomsoever He wills. They also believe that people have their own will and freedom to choose, so they do by their own will and power that which Allah enables them to do, but they point out that people do not will anything except that which Allah wills. “

Majmoo ‘ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/459.

 

[Taken from: Divine will and Predestination by Umar Sulaiman al-Ashqar, page 122-124]

 

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Shah Wali-Allah ad-Dihlawi on Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullah]

March 25, 2014 Leave a comment

 

Makhdum Muhammad Mu’in Sindhi, author of Darasat al-Labib, wrote to Shah Wall Allah, seeking his opinion about some of the views of Ibn Taymiyyah.

 

Shah Wali Allah on Ibn Taymiyyah

 

Shah Wall Allah wrote in reply:

 

My approach about all Muslim religious thinkers is that they are ‘uduul, that is, they possess correct faith and proper conduct. This is as the Prophet has said: ‘In every age people with piety and faith will represent [interpret] the religion [a].’ They may believe in certain things on which there may not be unanimity, but if such matters of their belief are not against the clear Qur’anic injunctions, the sunnah of the Prophet and the consensus of the community {ijma’), [criticism of them is not justified].

 

Our assessment of Ibn Taymiyyah after full investigation is that he was a scholar of the ‘Book of God’ and had full command over its etymological and juristic implications. He remembered by heart the traditions of the Prophet and accounts of elders (salaf) and understood well their etymological and juristic purpose and meaning. He was a recognized scholar of syntax (nahw) and semantics (lughat).

 

He was an authority on the Hanbalite jurisprudence and its principles and branches. He excelled in intelligence and brilliance. He argued in defence of ahl al-Sunnah with great eloquence and force.

 

No innovation or irreligious act is reported about him. Only certain matters on which he was harassed by his contemporaries have been reported to us. But there is not a single matter on which he is without his defence based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah.

 

So it is difficult to find a man in the whole world who possesses the qualities of Ibn Taymiyyah. No one can come anywhere near him in the force of his speech and writing. People who harassed him [and got him thrown in prison] did not possess even one-tenth of his scholarly excellence … In this matter the differences of the ‘ulama’ resemble the differences of the Companions of the Prophet and it is necessary to abstain from making any comments on such matters.’

 

[Maktubat-i Shah Wali Allah (Ahmadi Press, Delhi), 26-9]

 

[a] I was unable to find the saying attributed to Prophet Muhammed sallallahu alaihi wasallam. If anyone finds of similar sort, please do message me at: tawheedmovement.com@gmail.com

Hardship Isn’t the Point by Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullah]

October 3, 2013 Leave a comment

In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

“…And it should be known that Allah’s Pleasure and Love are not dependent on you torturing yourself and going through hardship, such that something is better simply on account of how hard it is. It is assumed by many ignorant people that the reward is obtained in accordance with hardship in everything. No! Rather, the reward is in accordance with the benefit of the act and how much it manifests obedience to Allah and His Messenger.

 

So, the more beneficial an act and the more obedient its doer, the more virtuous it is. Actions aren’t virtuous due to their quantity. Rather, they are virtuous due to the effect they have on the heart.

 

 

This is why when the sister of ‘Uqbah bin ‘Amir made a vow to perform Hajj walking barefoot, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said:

 “Indeed, Allah is not in need of your sister torturing herself. Have her continue while riding.” It was narrated that he had her slaughter an animal, and it was also narrated that he had her fast.

 

 

The same applies to the hadith of Juwayriyah when she was performing tasbih using pebbles before noon, and he came back at night and found her sitting in the same position. So, he said to her: “I said four words three times that would outweigh all that you have said today.”

 

 

The point of all this is to know that Allah didn’t command us to do except what is beneficial for us, and He didn’t forbid us except from what is harmful to us. This is why Allah praises righteous acts and encourages righteousness and benefit, and discourages corruption and harm.

 

Allah forbade us from filthy things due to the harm and corruption they bring about, and He commanded us with righteous acts due to the benefit they bring about. It might be the case that such actions cannot be performed except with some hardship, such as Jihad, enjoining the good, preventing the bad, seeking knowledge, etc. So, all of this is obtained through hardship, and one is rewarded for them due to the benefit that they result in. This is like when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said to ‘A’ishah when she performed ‘Umrah from at-Tan’im in the year of the Farewell Hajj: “Your reward is in accordance with your effort.”

 

 

However, if the benefit of the act does not outweigh the hardship it involves, this is a form of ruin and corruption, and Allah does not Love corruption.

 

An example of this is in worldly benefits. Enduring hardship to make a great gain or repel a great enemy is praiseworthy. As for one who endures great effort and hardship in order to make an insignificant amount of money or to repel a very minor harm, he is just like a person who pays a thousand dirhams in exchange for a hundred, or one who walks for an entire day to get a meal while he could’ve gotten a better meal in the very town he lives in.

 

So, the legislated and recommended course of action is all about justice, balance, and moderation – which are the best and loftiest of affairs – just as the Firdaws is both the highest part of Paradise and the middle (i.e. best) part of it. So, whoever is like this will have this as his destination, by Allah’s Permission…”

[‘Majmu’ al-Fatawa’; 25/126-127]

 

Related read:

® Are We Allowed to Create New Types and Styles of Adhkaar (remembrances of Allah e.g. SubhanAllah) and Duaa (Supplications)

 

Shaykh Abdul-Qadir al-Jilanee on al-Istawaa

May 14, 2013 Leave a comment

 

Shaykh Abdul-Qadir al-Jilanee is reported to have said:

“It is essential to carry the Attribute of al-Istawaa upon it’s apparent sense – without ta’weel, and that He Ascended in Person over the Throne.

 

Istawaa does not mean sitting or touching – as the Mujassima and Karraamiyyah say.

 

Nor does it mean grandeur and highness – as the Ash’ariyyah say.

 

Nor does it mean conquering and dominating as the Mu’tazila say.

 

None of this is related in the Sharee’ah.

 

Neither has this been related by any one of the Salaf as-Saalih and the Taabi’een.

Nor from the Ashaabul Hadeeth.

 

Rather it is related from them that they carried the meaning of Istawaa with it’s apparent meaning.”

[‘Gunya at- Taalibeen’ (1/50)]

 

Have you read this about Shaikh al Islam ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullah]?

May 13, 2013 Leave a comment

 

Al-Imam al-Bazzar wrote a long, first hand account of the life of Ibn Taymiyyah, who was his personal friend and companion. The book is called ‘al-A’lam al-‘Aliyyah fi Manaqib Ibn Taymiyyah,’ and this is a very, very small glimpse from it:

“During the nights, he would separate himself from everybody, secluding himself with his Lord, strictly maintaining his recitation of the Mighty Qur’an, and repeating the various types of daily and nightly worship.When the night was over, he would rejoin the people for the Fajr prayer, praying the optional prayer before meeting them. When he would begin the prayer, your heart would want to fly from its place just from the way in which he would make takbirat al-ihram. When he would begin the prayer, his limbs would shake, moving him left and right. When he would recite, he would elongate his recitation, just as was authentically reported in regards to the recitation of the Messenger of Allah. His bowing and prostration, as well as his coming up from them, are from the most complete of what has ever been reported in regards to the obligatory prayer. And he would severely lighten his sitting for the first tashahhud, and would say the first taslim out loud, to the point that everyone who was present would hear it……

 

And I came to know that it was his habit that nobody would speak to him unless absolutely necessary after the morning prayer. He would remain in a state of dhikr of Allah, listening to himself. Sometimes, he would let those sitting next to him listen to his dhikr, all the while constantly turning his eyesight to the sky. He would remain in such a state until the Sun rose, and the time in which prayer is forbidden had passed. During my stay in Damascus with him, I would spend some of the day and most of the night with him. He would draw me near to him, sitting me beside him.

 

I would hear what he would recite and repeat, and I saw that he would repeat ‘al-Fatihah’ over and over again, and would spend all of his time between Fajr and sunrise doing this.So, I kept thinking to myself, wondering: why would he recite this specific chapter of the Qur’an in exclusion to the others? Eventually, it became clear to me – and Allah Knows best – that his intention in doing so was to combine with his recitation between what was narrated in the ahadith and what was discussed by the scholars, in regards to whether the narrated adhkar should take precedence over recitation of the Qur’an, or vice versa. So, he saw that in repeating ‘al-Fatihah,’ he could combine between both opinions, and reap the benefits of both actions, and this was from his strength in logic and depth of insight.

 

After this, he would pray Duha, and if he wanted to hear Hadith in another place, he would rush to that place with whoever was with him at the time. It was rare that any intelligent person would see him and not come and kiss his hands. Even the busiest of businessmen would walk from what they were doing to greet him and seek his blessings. With all of this, he would give everyone of them their share of time, greetings, etc.

 

If he saw any evil in the street, he would work to remove it, and if he heard of a funeral taking place, he would rush to pray in it, or would apologize for missing it. Sometimes, he would go to the grave of the deceased after he finished listening to Hadith and pray over it. Afterwards, he would return to his mosque, where he would remain either giving fatawa to the people or fulfilling their needs, until it was time to pray Dhuhr in congregation. He would spend the rest of the day in such a manner.

 

His classes were general for the old, the young, the wealthy, the poor, the free, the slave, males, and females. He appealed to everyone that would pass by him of the people, and everyone of them would feel that Ibn Taymiyyah was treating them better than he was treating anyone else present. He would then pray Maghrib, and would follow it up with as much optional prayer as Allah made possible. I, or someone else, would then read his writings to him, and he would benefit us with various points and notes. We would do this until we prayed ‘Isha’, after which we would continue as we were before, delving into the various fields of knowledge. We would do this until much of the night had passed.

 

During this entire time – night and day – Ibn Taymiyyah would constantly remember Allah, mention His Oneness, and seek His forgiveness.And he would constantly raise his eyesight to the sky, and would not stop doing this, as if he saw something there that kept his eyesight hooked. He would do this for as long as I was staying with him.

 

So, Subhan Allah! How short were these days! If only they were longer! By Allah, until this day, there has never been a time in my life that is more beloved to me than the time I spent with him, and I was never seen in a better state than I was at that time, and this was for no other reason than the barakah of the Shaykh, may Allah be Pleased with him.

 

Every week, he would visit the sick, especially those at the hospital.

 

I have been informed by more than one person – whose trustworthiness I do not doubt – that the entire life of the Shaykh was spent in the way that I witnessed (and described above). So, what worship, and what Jihad is better than this?”

[Rahimahullah]

 

The Evil Deeds that Lead One to Hell by Ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimahullah)

April 1, 2013 Leave a comment

 

Sheikh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allaah have mercy on him, was asked:

“What are the deeds of the people of Hell and what are the deeds of the people of Paradise?”

He replied,

“The deeds of the people of Hell are:

 

• associating partners in worship with Allaah
• disbelieving in His Messenger
• kufr (ingratitude, disbelief)
• hasad (malicious envy)
• lying
• treachery
• oppression and wrongdoing (dhulm)
• promiscuity
• backstabbing
• cutting off the ties of kinship
• cowardice at the time of jihad
• miserliness
• inconsistency between what is in one’s heart and the face one shows to people
• despairing of the mercy of Allaah 
• feeling secure from the plan of Allaah 
• panicking blindly at the time of crisis
• pride and extravagance at the time of plenty
• abandoning one’s duties towards Allaah 
• transgressing His limits
• violating His sanctity
• fearing a created being instead of the Creator
• showing off
• going against the Qur’aan and Sunnah in word or deed
• obeying a created being in some act of disobedience to the Creator
• blindly supporting falsehood
• mocking the signs of Allaah 
• rejecting the truth
• withholding knowledge and testimony that should be revealed
• witchcraft and magic
• disobeying one’s parents
• killing any soul forbidden by Allaah  except for reasons of justice
• consuming the wealth of the orphan
• riba (usury)
• desertion from the battlefield
• slandering the reputation of innocent, chaste, believing women”

(Yaqadhat uli al-I’tibar, p.222)

 
The Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) mentioned all the sins that will lead one to Hell.

 

Muslim reports from ‘Iyadh bin Himaar that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, during a lengthy khutbah:

“..the people of Hell are five:

1] the weak who lack the power to (avoid evil);

 

2] the (carefree) who pursue (everything irrespective of whether it is good or evil) and who have no concern for their families or their wealth;

 

3] the dishonest people whose greed cannot be concealed even in the case of minor things;

 

4] and those who betray you, morning and evening, with regard to your family and your property.

 

5] He also mentioned misers, liars and those who are in the habit of abusing people and using obscene, foul language”.

(Muslim in Kitaab al-Jannah wa Sifaat Na’imihaa Baab as-Sifaat allaatee yu’raf bihaa fid-dunyaa ahl al-Jannah wa ahl an-Naar, 4/2197 no. 2865)

 

Related links:

 Did you know Hell can Speak and See?

         ¶ The Weak and Destitute Will Form the Majority in Paradise

 

Why testimony of faith occurs in singular form while others like seeking assistance, seeking refuge etc occurs in plural form in Khutbat ul Hajah?

March 9, 2013 Leave a comment

 

Text from Khutbat ul Hajah (The sermon for Necessities):

[Verily, all praise is for Allah, we praise him and we seek his assistance and we ask for His forgiveness. And we seek refuge in Allah from the evils of ourselves and from the evils of our actions.

 

Whoever Allah guides, there is no one who can lead him astray, and whoever is lead astray, there is no guide for him. I bear witness that there is no deity that has the right to be  worshipped  except Allah – [al0ne with no partner] – and i bear witness that Muhammed is His slave and Messenger.]

End quote.

 

 

Beautiful explanation and point of wisdom from Shaykh ul Islam ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah)

 

It can be noted here that the verb occurs  in singular form (i.e testimony of faith)  contrary to the previous verbs (i.e we seek assistance, we seek refuge, we ask forgiveness ), which occurs in the plural form. Shaykh ul Islam ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) brought to light an intricate point of wisdom regarding this, which was relayed from him by his student Ibn al Qayyim in Tahdheeb us Sunan (3/54).

 

 

He (rahimahullah) said:

“All of the ahaadeeth are in agreement that the verbs ‘seeking assistance’, ‘asking for forgiveness’, and ‘seeking refuge in Allah’ occur in plural form whereas the testimony of faith occurs in singular form – i.e. ‘ I bear witness that there is no deity that has the right to be  worshipped  except Allah – [al0ne with no partner] – and i bear witness that Muhammed is His slave and Messenger.’

 

Shaykh ul Islam ibn Taymiyyah said:

‘Since no one can take on the testimony of faith on behalf of someone else, and since a proxy cannot be accepted for it under any condition, the declaration of the testimony of faith here occurs in singular form.

 

And because seeking assistance, seeking refuge and asking for forgiveness is accepted on behalf of others, since a man may ask Allah to forgive someone else and assist him and he may seek refuge in Allah from him, it occurs here in the plural form. This is why he (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) would say, ‘O Allah, assist us, grant us refuge and forgive us.’ He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said this in the narration of Ibn Mas’ood (radiAllahu anhu). And there doesn’t occur in this hadeeth this wording: ‘we praise him.’

 

However, in the narration of Ibn Abbas (radiAllahu anhu), these words: ‘we praise him’ do occur in the plural form even though no one can take on the role of  praising (Allah) on behalf of someone else and even though its proxy is unacceptable….

 

 

There is another explanation for this, which is that the acts of seeking assistance, seeking refuge and asking for forgiveness are all requests and wishes. So it is recommended for the supplicant to ask for himself ans well as his believing brothers. and as for the Testimony of faith, then it is a notification in which one informs others that he testifies to the Allah’s oneness and to the Prophet’s messengership.

It is a notification that corresponds to the belief and affirmation of one’s heart. A person can only inform about this with respect to himself since he is aware of his own condition, contrary to him informing such on the behalf of others. So he may inform about someone else’s saying and statements but not what is found in the heart. And Allah knows best.”

 

[Taken from: Khutbat ul Hajah by Shaykh Muhammed Naasiruddin al Albaanee, pg-4, translated by Isma’eel Alarcon]

 

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