Posts Tagged ‘tawhid’

[Must read] The ‘aqeedah of Abul-Hasan al-Ash’ari, which he died believing

November 14, 2013 Leave a comment


Abul-Hasan al-Ash ‘ari stated:
This is a list of the beliefs to which the followers of the Hadith and the Sunnah adhere:


1– Belief in Allah, His angels and His Messengers, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.

2– That Paradise is true and Hell is true, that the Hour will undoubtedly come, and that Allah will resurrect those who are in the graves.

3– Allah is above His Throne as He says: ~The Most Merciful rose over the Throne. (Qur’an 20: 5)

4– He has two hands, but we do not discuss how, as He says: ~I have created with Both My Hands.~ (Qur’an 38: 75)

5– He has two eyes, but we do not discuss how, as He says: ~Sailing under Our Eyes.~ (Qur’an 54: 14)

6– He has a Face, as He says: ~And there will remain the Face of your Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honour) (Qur’an 55: 27)
7– The names of Allah cannot be said to be something other than Allah, as the Mu’tazilites and Khawarij say.

8– They affirmed that Allah is All-Knowing, as He says: ~He has sent it down with His Knowledge) (Qur’an 4: 166) and: ~And no female conceives or gives birth except with His Knowledge. (Qur’an 35: 11)

9– They affirm that Allah can hear and see, and they do not deny that as the Mu’tazilites do.

10– They affirm that Allah has power or strength, as He says: ~Did they not consider that Allah Who created them was greater than them in strengthvs (Qur’an 41: 15)

11- They say that nothing happens on earth, good or evil, except what Allah wills.

12– Things happen by the will of Allah, as He says: ~And you do not will except that Allah wills. (Qur’an 81: 29) And as the Muslims say: What Allah wills happens and what He does not will does not happen.


13– They say that no one can do anything that Allah knows he is not going to do.

14– They affirm that there is no creator except Allah, and that people’s bad deeds are created by Allah  and that people’s actions are created by Allah, and that people are not able to create anything.

15– They say that the Qur’an is the word of Allah and is not created.

16– Whoever suggests that the uttered words of the Qur’an are created is an innovator in their view. It should not be said that the uttered words of the Qur’ an are created or not created.

17– They believe that Allah will be seen in a literal sense on the Day of Resurrection as the moon is seen on the night when it is full. The believers will see Him but the disbelievers will not see Him because they will be veiled from seeing Him. Allah says: ~No! Indeed, they [evil doers] will be veiled from seeing their Lord that Day) (Qur’an 83: 15). Moses asked Allah to let him see Him in this world, and Allah appeared to the mountain and made it collapse to dust (Qur’an 7: 143), so He showed him that he could not see Him in this world but he will see Him in the Hereafter.

18– They do not regard any Muslim as a disbeliever if he commits sin such as fornication, stealing and other major sins; they are believers even though they have committed major sins.

19– In their view, faith means believing in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, the divine decree both good and bad, sweet and bitter, and that what has missed them would never  have befallen them and what has befallen them would never have missed them.


20– Islam means bearing witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, according to what it says in the Hadith, and in their view Islam is something different from iman (faith, belief).

21– They affirm that Allah is the Controller of the hearts.

22– They affirm the intercession of the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and that it will be for those members of his Ummah who commit major sins; they affirm the torment of the grave, and that the cistern is true, the sirat is true and the Resurrection after death is true.

23– The Reckoning by Allah of His slaves is true and the standing before Allah (on the Day of Resurrection) is true.

24– They affirm that faith is both words and deeds; it may increase and decrease. They do not say that faith is created or not created.

25– They believe that the names of Allah are Allah.

The-aqeedah-of-Abu Hasan al ashari

26– They do not testify that anyone who commits a major sin will be in Hell, and they do not affirm that any individual among those who profess Islamic monotheism will be in Paradise. Rather Allah will put them wherever He wills. They believe that the matter is up to Allah: if He wills He will punish them and if He wills He will forgive them. They believe that Allah will bring some of those who profess tawheed out of Hell, according to what is mentioned in the reports from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

27- They denounce arguments about religion and disputes about the divine decree, and what the argumentative debate about  with regard to religious matters. They accept the sound reports which were transmitted by trustworthy narrators going all the way back to the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), and they do not ask how or why, because that is innovation.


28– They believe that Allah did not enjoin evil; rather He forbade it and enjoined good. He does not approve of evil even though He wills it.

29– They acknowledge the rights of those whom Allah chose to accompany His Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam); they recognize their virtues and refrain from discussing the disputes that arose among them.

30– They give precedence to Abu Bakr, then ‘Umar, then ‘Uthman, then ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with them all).

31– They affirm that they are the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and the best of all people after the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

32– They believe in the hadiths which came from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) including: «Allah descends to the lowest heaven and says: Is there anyone who will ask forgiveness?» as the hadith came from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

33– They adhere to the Qur’ an and Sunnah as Allah says: ~And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and His Messenger. (Qur’an 4: 59)

34– They believe in following the early generation of imams who did not introduce any innovation into their religion for which Allah did not give permission.

35– They affirm that Allah will come on the Day of Resurrection as He says: ~And your Lord comes, and the angels rank upon rank.} (Qur’an 89: 22)

36– And that Allah draws near to His creation however He wills, as  He says: ~And We are closer to him than his jugular vein [by Our Knowledge]. (Qur’an 50: 16)


37– They believe in offering Eid and congregational prayers behind any ruler, good or bad.

38- They affirm that wiping over the socks is Sunnah and is valid whether one is travelling or not.

39– They affirm that engaging in jihad against the polytheists is obligatory, from the time Allah sent His Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) until the last group fights the false Messiah and after that.

40– They believe that supplication should be said asking for the Muslim leaders to be guided aright, and that they should not rebel against them with the sword, and that they should not fight at times of fitnah.

41– They believe that the Dajjal will emerge and that ‘Eesa ibn Maryam (Jesus, son of Mary) will kill him.

42– They believe in Munkar and Nakeer, and in the miraculous ascent [of Prophet Muhammed (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) to heaven], and in the visions seen in dreams.

43– And (they believe that) the benefit of supplication for deceased Muslims and charity given on their behalf after death will reach them.

44– They believe that there are practitioners of witchcraft in the world, and that the practitioner of witchcraft is a disbeliever as Allah says, and that magic or witchcraft exists in this world.

45– They believe in offering the funeral prayer for any Muslim who dies, whether he was righteous or otherwise, and that they may be inherited from.

46– They affirm that Paradise and Hell are created entities.


47– They affirm that everyone who dies, dies at his appointed time, and everyone who is killed, is killed at his appointed time.

48– They affirm that provision comes from Allah, Who gives provision to His slaves, whether it is halal or haram.

49– The devil whispers to people and instils doubt and confusion.

50– It may so happen that Allah chooses to single out some of the righteous for signs that appear at their hands.

51– The Sunnah does not abrogate the Qur’an.

52– With regard to children who die, it is up to Allah: if He wills He will punish them and if He wills He do whatever He wants with them.

53– Allah knows what His slaves will do and has decreed that it will happen, and all things are in the hands of Allah.

54– They believe in patience in adhering to < what Allah has enjoined and refraining from what He has forbidden; sincerity (towards Allah) in actions; sincerity towards the Muslims; worshipping Allah alongside those who worship Him; avoiding major sins, fornication, false speech, minor sins, pride, arrogance, looking down on people and self-admiration.

55– They believe in shunning everyone who promotes innovation.

56– They believe in occupying oneself with reading the Qur’ an, studying reports of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), acquiring knowledge and studying fiqh with humility and a good attitude, doing favours, refraining from causing harm, refraining from backbiting, gossip and troublemaking, and checking on food and drink.

57– This is a summary of what they enjoin, do and believe. Everything that has been mentioned of their beliefs we believe and follow also, and we have no help but that of Allah; He is  sufficient for us and is the best disposer of affairs; His help we seek and in Him we put our trust and to Him is the final destiny.


[al-Khamees, Muhammad, I’tiqad Ahl as-Sunnah As-hab al-Hadeeth Sharh jumlah ma Hakahu ‘anhum Abul-Hasan aI-Ash ‘ari wa Qarraruhu fee Maqalatihi, p. 11-171. Dr. al-Khamees undertook a study of these basic principles.]



Fabricated narration in Kitab at-Tawhid- Explanation by Shaikh Saalih al Uthaymeen

August 3, 2013 Leave a comment


Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) commented upon verse of Qur’an ‘But when He gave them a Salih (good in every aspect) child, they ascribed partners to Him’: ” When Adam had sexual relation with Eve, she became pregnant. At that time Iblis (Satan) came to them and said “I am the one who caused your expulsion from Paradise. Obey me, otherwise I shall cause your child to grow two horns like a deer by which he will puncture your belly when he comes out! I will do it! I will do it!” Satan thus frightened them (Adam and Eve) and said to name the boy “Abdul-Harith;’ (slave of the earth cultivator). They (Adam and Eve) did not obey him (Satan) and a dead child was born to them. When Eve became pregnant a second time, Satan again approached them and repeated the same demand but again they did not obey. And the second child was still born dead. She [Eve] became pregnant a third time, Satan again came to them and put the same demand mentioning what had happened before. Adam and Eve were overcome by love for the child and named the boy “Abdul-Harith (slave of the earth cultivator)”. And this is what Allah said (in the verse): “They made partners with Him for what they were given”.

[Reported by Ibn Abi Hatim]


Shaikh Ibn Uthaymeen [rahimahullah] said: And this story is false from number of angles:

1] That there is no authentic narration concerning that from Prophet Muhammed [sallallahu alaihi wasallam] – and it is from the kind of information that cannot be obtained except by revelation and Ibn Hazm said concerning this story, “Indeed it is a report that is superstitious lie.”



2] If this story was concerning Adam and Eve, then they either made repentance from the Shirk or died upon it, so whoever makes it permissible to hold that a single one of the Prophets died upon shirk than that is something severely wrong. And if they repented from Shirk, then it does not befit the wisdom, justice and mercy of Allah, that He mentions their mistakes and not their repentance from it. When Allah, the Most High, mentions the mistakes of some of the Prophets and Messengers, He mentions their repentance from it, as in the story of Adam and his wife, when he ate from the tree and they repented from it.



3] That the Prophets are protected from shirk by the agreement of Scholars.



4] That it is confirmed in the hadith of intercession, that the people will come to Adam and seek intercession from him, then he will excuse himself, due to eating from the tree and that is a sin, and if shirk had occurred from him, it would have been stronger excuse.



5] That in this story it is mentioned that Shaytan came to them and said: ‘I am your companion who got you out of paradise’, so if he said that, they would have known with certainty that he was an enemy to them and would not accept anything from him.



6] That in this story is his saying: ‘I will cause it to have horns that will puncture her belly….’, if he believed that it is possible he could actually do that, then this is shirk in Lordship because none but Allah is able to do that. And if he didn’t believe it was possible, then it is not possible to accept his saying.



7] The saying of Allah, the Most High: ‘Exalted be Allah above what they associate with Him’ [7:190] The pronoun is plural and if it was concerning Adam and Eve, it would have been in the dual form… But what is correct is that Al-Hasan [rahimahullah] said: ‘Indeed those intended in this verse are not Adam and Eve’, and what is meant is the polytheists from the children of Adam (descendants), as was mentioned by Ibn Kathir in his tafisr.

[See Al Qawl al Mufeed, 2/156-157]



Ruling on Qutb and Ghawth titles

December 1, 2012 Leave a comment


Bismillah Ar Rahmaan Ar Raheem♣

Q: What is the ruling on giving the title of Qutb (Sufi title denoting a “Perfect Master”) or Ghawth (Source of Succor) to some Awliya’ (pious people)? Is this permissible?


A: The two titles Qutb and Ghawth do not have any basis in Allah’s Purified Shar` (Law). These terms are invented by some extremist Sufis. Accordingly, giving these titles to some Awliya’ (pious people) is not permissible. Some misguided people understand such terms to mean that such a Qutb or Ghawth can run the affairs of the universe and fulfill people’s needs. This is Kufr (disbelief) that contradicts Tawhid (belief in the Oneness of Allah/ monotheism) because Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) revealed the Scriptures, and sent the Messengers to worship Him Alone without partners or associates. He (Exalted be He) commanded all creatures to resort and supplicate to Him Alone to bestow upon them all good and ward off harm. Allah (Exalted be He) says:  {Is not He (better than your gods) Who responds to the distressed one, when he calls on Him, and Who removes the evil, and makes you inheritors of the earth, generations after generations? Is there any ilâh (god) with Allâh? Little is that you remember! Surah an Naml 62)}.  He (Exalted be He) says: { And if Allâh touches you with harm, there is none who can remove it but He, and if He intends any good for you, there is none who can repel His Favour which He causes it to reach whomsoever of His slaves He wills. And He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful (Surah Yunus 107)}. He (Glorified be He) also says:  Say:{ “None in the heavens and the earth knows the Ghaib (Unseen) except Allâh”(Surah an Naml 65)}

May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions



Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’


Member Member Member Member Deputy Chairman Chairman
Bakr Abu Zayd Salih Al-Fawzan `Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan `Abdul-`Aziz Al Al-Shaykh `Abdul-Razzaq `Afify `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz

Fatwas of the Permanent Committee – Group 2 – Part 2 – Page 84

What is Ibadah?

October 3, 2011 Leave a comment





                                                    The Meaning of Ibadah



The statement of Allaah – the Most High:


“I did not create the Jinn, nor mankind, except to worship Me.” [Sooratudh-Dhaariyaat 51:56]


Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“Worship (al-‘Ibaadah) is obedience to Allaah by following that which He ordered upon the tongues of His Messengers.” He also said, “Worship (al-‘Ibaadah) is a comprehensive term covering everything that Allaah loves and is pleased with – whether saying, or actions, outward and inward.”

[Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (10/149) of Ibn Taymiyyah]


Ibnul-Qayyim (d.751H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“Worship revolves around fifteen principles. Whosoever completes them has completed the stages of ‘uboodiyyah (servitude to Allaah). The explanation of this is that ‘ibaadah is divided between the heart, the tongue, and the limbs. And that for each one of these three come five types of rulings, covering all actions: waajib (obligatory), mustahabb (recommended), haraam (prohibited), makrooh (disliked), and mubaah (permissible).”

[Madaarijus-Saalikeen (1/109)]


Imaam al-Qurtubee (d.671H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“The root of ‘ibaadah is humility and submissiveness. The various duties that have been prescribed upon the people are called ‘ibaadaat (acts of worship), since what is required is that these acts of worship must be done with humility and submissiveness to Allaah – the Most High.”

[Al-Jaami’ li-Ahkaamil-Qur’aan (1/225), and (17/56) of al-Qurtubee]


Ibn Katheer (d.774H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“And ‘ibaadah is obedience to Allaah by acting upon what He commands, and abandoning what He forbids; and this is the reality and essence of Islaam. And the meaning of Islaam is: istislaam (submission and surrender) to Allaah – the Most High – along with the utmost compliance, humility, and submissiveness to Him.”


He also said whilst explaining the above aayah:

“Indeed Allaah – the Most High – created the creation so that they could worship Him alone, without associating any partner with Him. Whoever obeys Him will be completely rewarded, whereas whoever disobeys Him would be punished with a severe punishment. And He has informed that He is neither dependent, nor does He have any need for them. Rather, it is they who are in dire need of Him, in every condition and circumstance, since He is the One who created, sustains, and provides for them.”

[Tafseerul-Qur’aanil-‘Adtheem (7/402)]


The meaning of Tawheed and its categories

September 22, 2011 Leave a comment


Praise be to Allaah.


Praise be to Allaah and blessings and peace be upon His Messenger and Chosen Prophet.


Tawheed in Arabic means attributing Oneness to Allaah and describing Him as being One and Unique, with no partner or peer in His Essence and Attributes.  


The Arabs say waahid, ahad and waheed, all meaning one. Allaah is Waahid, meaning that He has no rivals or peers in any way. So Tawheed means knowing Allaah is One, with none like unto Him. Whoever does not acknowledge Allaah in these terms and does not describe Him as being One with no partner or associate does not believe in Tawheed.


With regard to the shar’i definition of Tawheed, it means believing in Allaah alone as God and Lord and attributing to Him alone all the attributes of Lordship and divinity.  


It may be defined as follows:

Believing that Allaah is One with no partner or associate in His Lordship (ruboobiyyah), divinity (uloohiyyah) or names and attributes (al-asma’ wa’l-sifaat)


This word (Tawheed) and its derivatives are used with this meaning in the Qur’aan and Sunnah. For example:

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Say (O Muhammad): He is Allaah, (the) One [Ahad].

2. Allaah‑us‑Samad [Allaah — the Self‑Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, (He neither eats nor drinks)].

3. He begets not, nor was He begotten.

4. And there is none co‑equal or comparable unto Him”

[al-Ikhlaas 112:1-3] 


“And your Ilaah (God) is One Ilaah [ilaahun waahidun] (God — Allaah), Laa Ilaaha illa Huwa (there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He), the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful”

[al-Baqarah 2:163] 


“Surely, disbelievers are those who said: ‘Allaah is the third of the three (in a Trinity).’ But there is no Ilaah (god) (none who has the right to be worshipped) but One Ilaah [ilaahun waahidun] (God —Allaah). And if they cease not from what they say, verily, a painful torment will befall on the disbelievers among them”

[al-Maa’idah 5:73] 


And there are many similar verses.

In Saheeh al-Bukhaari (7372) and Saheeh Muslim (19) it is narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sent Mu’aadh ibn Jabal to Yemen, he said to him: “You are going to people from among the People of the Book, so let the first thing to which you call them be belief in Allaah alone (Tawheed). If they accept that, then tell them that Allaah has enjoined on them five prayers every day and night. If they pray then tell them that Allaah has enjoined on them zakaah from their wealth to be taken from their rich and given to their poor. If they agree to that then take it from them but avoid the best of people’s wealth.”


In Saheeh Muslim it is narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“Islam is built on five (pillars): belief that Allaah is One, establishing regular prayer, paying zakaah, fasting Ramadaan and Hajj.” 



What is meant by Tawheed in all these texts is affirming the meaning of the testimony that there is no god but Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, which is the essence of the religion of Islam with which Allaah sent His Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), based on the evidence of the words of the Qur’aan and Sunnah. In some versions of the hadeeth of Mu’aadh quoted above it says:

“You will come to some people from among the People of the Book so when you come to them, call them to bear witness that there is no god except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1492. 


According to another version of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“Islam is based on five (pillars): the testimony that there is no god except Allaah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger…”

Narrated by Muslim, 16. 



This indicates that Tawheed is the essence of the testimony that there is no god except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and that this is Islam with which Allaah sent His Prophet to the two races of mankind and the jinn, other than which Allaah will not accept any religion from anyone.


Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Truly, the religion with Allaah is Islam”

[Aal ‘Imraan 3:19] 


“And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers”

[Aal ‘Imraan 3:85] 


Once this is understood, it should be noted that the scholars have divided Tawheed into three categories, as follows: 

Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah (Oneness of Divine Lordship), Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah (Oneness of Divinity) and Tawheed al-Asma’ wa’l-Sifaat (Oneness of the Divine Names and Attributes). 


Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah (Oneness of Divine Lordship): means believing in Allaah as One and Unique with regard to His actions such as creation, sovereignty, control, giving life and death, and so on.


Whoever believes that there is any creator other than Allaah or any sovereign controlling this universe and disposing of its affairs other than Allaah has denied this aspect of Tawheed and disbelieved in Allaah.


The kuffaar of old accepted this aspect of Tawheed in general terms, although they differed with regard to some of its details. The evidence that they used to accept this is to be found in several verses of the Qur’aan such as the following (interpretation of the meaning):

“And if you were to ask them: ‘Who has created the heavens and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon?’ they will surely reply: ‘Allaah.’ How then are they deviating (as polytheists and disbelievers)?”

[al-‘Ankaboot 29:61] 

“And if you were to ask them: ‘Who sends down water (rain) from the sky, and gives life therewith to the earth after its death?’ they will surely reply: ‘Allaah.’ Say: ‘All the praises and thanks be to Allaah!’ Nay, most of them have no sense”

[al-‘Ankaboot 29:63] 

“And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: ‘Allaah.’ How then are they turned away (from the worship of Allaah Who created them)?”

[al-Zukhruf 43:87] 


In these verses Allaah states that the kuffaar affirm that He is the Creator, Sovereign and Controller, but despite that they do not worship Him alone (Tawheed of worship), which points to the graveness of their wrongdoing and lies, and the weakness of their reasoning. For if there is One Who is described in such terms, none should be worshipped except Him alone and none should be described as being one and unique except Him; may He be glorified above those that they associate with him.


So whoever affirms this Tawheed in the true sense must inevitably also affirm the Oneness of Allaah’s Divinity (Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah).

Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah means devoting all acts of worship, both inward and outward, in word and deed, to Allaah Alone, and not worshipping anything or anyone other than Allaah, no matter who he is.


Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him”

[al-Isra’ 17:23] 

“Worship Allaah and join none with Him (in worship)”

[al-Nisa’ 4:36] 

It may be described as devoting all one’s actions to Allaah alone.


It is called Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah because it is based on ta’alluh lillaah which is worship and devotion of Allaah accompanied by love and veneration.


It is also called Tawheed al-‘Ibaadah (oneness of worship) because it means that a person worships Allaah by doing that which He has commanded and avoiding that which He has forbidden.


It is also called Tawheed al-Talab wa’l-Qasd wa’l-Iraadah (Oneness of goal, purpose and will) because it means that a person does not seek anything except the Face of Allaah, so he worships Him sincerely.


This is the kind of Tawheed concerning which people went astray, which is why the Prophets were sent and the Books were revealed. This is the purpose for which the universe was created and laws were prescribed. Concerning this disputes arose between the Prophets and their peoples, so the stubborn were doomed and the believers were saved.


Whoever goes astray with regard to this Tawheed, such as devoting some of his worship to someone other than Allaah, has gone beyond the pale of Islam and drifted away from true belief. May Allaah protect us from that.


With regard to Tawheed al-Asma’ wa’l-Sifaat (Oneness of the Divine Names and Attributes), this means affirming the names and attributes of Allaah and believing that there is none like unto Allaah in His names and attributes.

This Tawheed is based on two principles:

1 – Affirmation: i.e., affirming that which Allaah has affirmed for Himself in His Book or that His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has affirmed of His beautiful names and sublime attributes in a manner that suits the Majesty and Greatness of Allaah, without distorting them, twisting their meanings, denying their reality or discussing how they are.

2 – Denial: i.e., denying that Allaah has any faults and denying any shortcomings that He has denied Himself. The evidence for that is the words of Allaah (interpretation of the meaning):

“There is nothing like Him, and He is the All‑Hearer, the All‑Seer”

[al-Shoora 42:11] 

So He has denied that He bears any resemblance to His creation, and affirmed that He has attributes of perfection in a manner that befits Him, may He be glorified.

See al-Hujjah fi Bayaan al-Mahajjah, 1/305; Lawaami’ al-Anwaar al-Bahiyyah, 1/57.


Types Of Shirk (Forms of Shirk)

September 20, 2011 Leave a comment


The following are some of the things that negate Tawheed or cause deficiencies in it, as the scholars have mentioned. It is presented here for you so that you may beware of them.



1.      Wearing a ring or string of any type, whether it is made of brass, copper, iron, or leather, with the intent of removing some ailment or protecting against something. Indeed this is a form of shirk.


2.      Prayer formulas (or incantations) that are innovated or written and worn. The prayer formulas (or incantations) that are innovated include talismans, unintelligible words, seeking help from the jinns in learning the cause of the illness, undoing magic (that is done to someone) with the help of Jinns, and using written formulas. These written formulas are hung on the person or animal with thread or string. It makes no difference whether it contains innovated words that are written that have not come from the Qur’aan  and Sunnah, or words that do come from the Qur’aan and Sunnah. This is because hanging written formulas like this is one of the causes that lead to Shirk.


The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said “Verily, Ar-Ruqa (incantations containing shirk), At-Tama’im(written formulas that are worn), and At-Tiwalah (spells that make people fall in love) are all Shirk.” (Ahmad and Abu Dawood)


This also includes hanging paper, or pieces if copper, or iron inside the car that contain Allaah’s Name, Ayat al-Kursi (Verse 2:255 of the Qur’aan), or putting a copy of the Holy Qur’aan inside the car. To place this things in the car while believing that they will protect it and prevent any evil from happening to it, such as the evil-eye or other things is a type of Shirk. Also placing an object that is in the shape of a hand or that has an eye drawn on it is not permissible because people believe that this protects against the evil-eye.


The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Whoever hangs something then he is entrusted to its care.”(Ahmad, Tirmidhi and Al-Hakim)


3.      From that which causes deficiencies in Tawheed is seeking blessings through people, touching them (for blessings) and requesting blessings from them. This also includes seeking blessings through trees, stones and other things. Even the Ka`bah should not be wiped for blessings. `Umar bin Al-Khattab said while he was kissing the Black Stone (of the Ka`bah),


“Verily I know that you are merely a stone. You cannot harm nor benefit. If I had not seen the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم kissing you, I would not kiss you.” (Bukhari and Abu Dawood)


4.      From that which negates Tawheed is sacrificing animals for other than Allaah, like sacrificing them for righteous people (who are deceased), devils, and jinns, in order to bring about some benefit or repel their harms. This is from the greatest forms of Shirk. Just as it is not permissible to sacrifice animals for other than Allaah; it is also not permissible to sacrifice (animals) in a place where sacrifice is made for other than Allaah, even if the person sacrificing the animal intends to sacrifice for Allaah alone. This is a means of prevention that which may lead to Shirk.


5.      Making a vow to other than Allaah. Making vows is a form of worship and it is not permissible to direct vows to other than Allaah.


6.      Seeking help and seeking refuge in other than Allaah.

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said to Ibn `Abbas, “When you seek help, seek the help of Allaah, and when you ask, ask Allaah…” (Ahmad, Tirmidhi)


Thus, from this we know that it is prohibited to make supplications to the jinns and the dead.


7.      From that which causes deficiencies in Tawheed is exaggeration concerning the righteous people (Awliyaa’) and the pious (Saaliheen), and elevating them above their appropriate status. This exaggeration takes the form of magnifying them, elevating their status to the status of the Messengers, or thinking that they were infallible, and that they had the knowledge of the unseen (`ilm al-Ghaib).


The Prohet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Do not exaggerate in praising me as the Christians praised the son of Mary, for I am only a slave. So, call me the Slave of Allaah and His Apostle.”(Bukhari)


8.      From that which negates Tawheed is making circuits (Tawaf) around graves. This is a type of Shirk. It is also not permissible to pray (Salah)at graveyards because it is a means of Shirk. So how about praying to the graves and worshipping them?! May Allaah protect us from this.


9.      In order to preserve Tawheed, building structures over graves, placing domes and Masjids over them, and singling them out as special places (i.e. shrines) has been forbidden.


10.  From that which negates Tawheed is magic, going to magicians (for help), soothsayers, fortunetellers, horoscope predictors and their likes. People who practice magic are disbelievers and it is not permissible to go to them, ask them, or believe in them, even if they are called Awliya’ (saints), Shaikhs (religious men), and other similar titles.


11.  From that which causes deficiencies in Tawheed are omens. This is the act of looking for signs of omen in the flight of birds, or in a particular day, month, or a person (e.g. Friday the 13th, Zodiacal signs, saying good/bad luck, black cat). All of this is not permissible. Belief in omens is Shirk just as has been mentioned in a Hadith of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.


12.  From that which causes deficiencies in Tawheed is extreme reliance upon the means, such as the doctor, the medicine, one’s job and other things, while not placing ultimate reliance upon Allaah. What is correct according to the Islaamic-legislation is that effort should be made to use the means, like seeking cures and sustenance, but the heart should be reliant upon Allaah and not the means.


13.  From that which causes deficiencies in Tawheed is astrology and using the stars for other than what they were created for. They should not be used for learning the future and unseen events. All of this is not allowed in Islaam.


14.  Attributing the cause of rain to the stars, movement of the planets (stars), the seasons and believing that the stars bring the rain or hold it back. Rather, the One Who sends down the rain and holds it back is Allaah. Thus, one should say:


“We were given rain by the blessing and mercy of Allaah.” (Bukhari & Muslim)


15.  From that which negates Tawheed is directing anything from the types of worship of the heart to other than Allaah. Examples are directing absolute love or absolute fear to things from created beings.


16.  From that which causes deficiencies in Tawheed is feeling secure from the Plan of Allaah and His torment, or despairing of His Mercy. No one should feel safe from the Plan of Allaah nor should one despair of His Mercy. Rather, one should be in a state between fear and hope.


“Did the people of the towns then feel secure against the coming of Our punishment by night while they were asleep? Or, did the people of the towns then feel secure against the coming of Our punishment in the forenoon while they were playing? Did they then feel secure against the Plot of Allâh? None feels secure from the Plot of Allâh except the people who are the losers.” Surah Al A`fraaf (7): 97-99


The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Verily Allah created Mercy. The day He created it, He made it into one hundred parts. He withheld with Him ninety-nine parts, and sent its one part to all His creatures. Had the non-believer known of all the Mercy which is in the Hands of Allah, he would not lose hope of entering Paradise, and had the believer known of all the punishment which is present with Allah, he would not consider himself safe from the Hell-Fire.” (Bukhari)


17.  From that which causes deficiencies in Tawheed is lacking patience in the Decree of Allaah, becoming restless with worry and opposing the Divine Decree by saying things like, “O Allaah! Why did you do this to me?”, or “Why have you done to so-and-so?!” or similar statements of wailing with anguish, tearing the clothes and pulling out the hair.


18.  Doing deeds for show or to be heard by others and that a person seeks worldly gains by his deeds are all aspect of shirk.


The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “If anyone acquires knowledge of things by which Allah’s good pleasure is sought, but acquires it only to get some worldly advantage, he will not experience the arf, i.e. the odour, of Paradise.” (Abu Dawood: Authenticated by Shaikh Al-Albaanee)


Also refer to the Hadith of the martyr, the Qur’aan recite, and the one who gave sadaqah, as has been narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh.


19.  From that which negates Tawheed is obeying the scholars, leaders and other than them in forbidding that which is permissible, or making permissible that which is forbidden. Obeying them in these things is a type of Shirk.


20.  From that which causes deficiencies in Tawheed is saying, “What Allaah wills and what you will.” Or saying, “If it were not for Allaah and so-and-so…” Or saying, “I have placed my trust in Allaah and so-and-so.” It is obligatory to use the word “then” in all of the previous statements in place of the word “and”. This is due to the command of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم to say:


“What Allaah wills, then what you will.” (Nasa’i, Authenticated by Shaikh Al-Albaanee)


21.  From that which causes deficiencies in Tawheed is reviling time, the era (in which one lives), the days, and the months.


22.  From that which negates Tawheed is mocking the religion (Islaam) or the Messengers, or the Qur’aan or the Sunnah. Also included in this is the mocking the righteous people and the scholars because of what they carry of the Sunnah (i.e. their knowledge of it preaching of it) and its appearance on them. Examples of this would be the mocking the beard or the tooth stick (siwak), or wearing the garments above the ankles, and other aspects of the Sunnah.


23.  Using the names `Abdun-Nabi (servants of the Prophet), `Abdul-Ka`bah (servant of the Ka`bah), or `Abdul-Husain (servant of Husain, the Prophet’s grandson) is not permissible. Rather, servitude and worship are for Allaah alone. Thus, we should use names like `Abdullaah (servant of Allaah) and `Abdur-Rahmaan (servant of the Most Gracious).


24.  From that which causes deficiencies in Tawheed is making pictures of things that have souls (i.e. animate beings), and then honoring these pictures and hanging them on the walls, in the sitting rooms and other places.


25.  From that which negates Tawheed is putting crosses, drawing them, or leaving them present on clothes and allowing them. It is obligatory to break the cross or erase it.


26.  From that which negates Tawheed is befriending disbelievers and hypocrites by glorifying and honoring them. This includes addressing them with the title Saiyid (sir), receiving them with greetings of respect and loving them. (It also includes participating with them in their religious festivals like Christmas, Valentine’s Day etc.)


27.  From that which negates Tawheed and contradicts it is ruling by other than what Allaah has revealed, and placing man-made systems of government in the position of the most wise legislation of Islaam. This results from the belief that man-made systems of government are correct to be ruled by and for lawmaking or that the man-made systems of government are like the Islaamic law, or better than it, or more suitable for the current times. Being please with this (man-made systems of government replacing the Islaamic law) also falls in this same category. It also includes the belief that the Islaamic legislation is not meant for all people and for all times, or that it or some part of it, is not applicable in these modern times.


28.  From that which causes deficiencies in Tawheed is swearing by other than Allaah. Examples of this are a person’s saying, “By the Prophet!” or “By the trust (given to me)” or “By my father!” or similar statements.


The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Whoever swears by other than Allaah has committed disbelief (Kufr) or associated a partner with Allaah (Shirk).” (Tirmidhi, and authenticated by Shaikh Al-Albaanee)

Adopted from the book “The Concise Collection On Creed & Tawheed”, by Darussalam publishers and distributors.


Dua is to be made to Allah alone

September 14, 2011 Leave a comment

What is the ruling on making dua to anyone other than Allah?

Praise be to Allah.
Allah is close to His slaves; he sees where they are and He knows their situation. He hears what they say and responds to their dua (supplication). Nothing about them is hidden from Him, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Truly, nothing is hidden from Allaah, in the earth or in the heaven”

[Aal ‘Imraan 3:5]

Allah Alone is the One Who has created us and Who provides for us; in His hand is the dominion and He is Able to do all things:

“To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is therein, and He is Able to do all things”

[al-Maa’idah 5:17 – interpretation of the meaning]

In Allah’s hand alone is all goodness. When He calls mankind to something good in His Book or on the lips of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), they should obey that command and respond to it:

“O you who believe! Answer Allah (by obeying Him) and (His) Messenger when he calls you to that which will give you life, and know that Allah comes in between a person and his heart (i.e. He prevents an evil person to decide anything). And verily, to Him you shall (all) be gathered”

[al-Anfaal 8:24 – interpretation of the meaning]

Allah is Able to do all things, and He hears the supplication of His slaves. He responds to them at all times and in all places, no matter what their various needs and languages. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright

[al-Baqarah 2:186]

Allah has commanded us to call upon Him in secret, with humility and submission, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Invoke your Lord with humility and in secret. He likes not the aggressors”

[al-A’raaf 7:55]

To Allah belongs Dominion and to Him be praise, and He is Able to do all things. The heavens and the earth and everything in them glorifies Him, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him and there is not a thing but glorifies His Praise. But you understand not their glorification. Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft‑Forgiving”

[al-Israa’ 17:44]

Allah has promised Hell to those who are too arrogant to worship Him and call upon Him. He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, those who scorn My worship [i.e. do not invoke Me, and do not believe in My Oneness, (Islamic Monotheism)] they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!”

[Ghaafir 40:60]

Dua should be made to Allah in the manner that Allah and His Messenger have prescribed. For example, Allah should be called upon by His Most Beautiful Names:

“And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do”

[al-A’raaf 7:180 – interpretation of the meaning]

So we may say O Most Merciful, have mercy on us, O Ever-Forgiving, forgive us, O Provider grant us provision, and so on.

When a person makes dua, either Allah gives him what he asked for or He diverts it from him a harm that is greater than the thing he asked for, or He stores up what he has asked for, for the Hereafter. This is because Allah has commanded us to call upon Him and He has promised to respond to our call:

“And your Lord said: ‘Invoke Me [i.e. believe in My Oneness (Islamic Monotheism) and ask Me for anything] I will respond to your (invocation)’

[Ghaafir 40:60 – interpretation of the meaning]

Allah has commanded us to worship Him alone, and He has warned us against worshipping the Shaytaan. He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Did I not command you, O Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaytaan (Satan). Verily, he is a plain enemy to you.
And that you should worship Me [Alone Islamic Monotheism, and set up not rivals, associate‑gods with Me]. That is the Straight Path”

[Yaa-Seen 36:60-61]

Calling upon anyone other than Allah to meet one’s needs, relieve distress or heal disease is insanity caused by lack of understanding:

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘Shall we invoke others besides Allah (false deities), that can do us neither good nor harm, and shall we turn back on our heels after Allah has guided us (to true Monotheism)?’”

[al-An’aam 6:71 – interpretation of the meaning]

If a person calls upon one who cannot bring benefit or cause harm, who cannot command or prohibit, who cannot hear or respond, whether that is a Prophet, a Messenger, a jinn or an angel, or a star or planet or rock or tree, or one of the dead – all of that is serious wrong-doing, and a going astray from the Straight Path. It is shirk, the association of others with Allah the Almighty.

“And invoke not besides Allah any such that will neither profit you nor harm you, but if (in case) you did so, you shall certainly be one of the Zaalimoon (wrongdoers)”

[Yoonus 10:106 – interpretation of the meaning]

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And who is more astray than one who calls on (invokes) besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls (invocations) to them

[al-Ahqaaf 46:5]

Calling upon anyone or anything other than Allah is shirk, and shirk is a great sin, indeed it is the greatest sin. Allah will forgive any sin for whomever He wills, except for shirk, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills

[al-Nisaa’ 4:48]

On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will gather the mushrikeen and everyone who was worshipped instead of Him, then those who were worshipped instead of Allah will disavow those who worshipped them, and they will deny their association with Allah, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmeer (the thin membrane over the date stone).
If you invoke (or call upon) them, they hear not your call; and if (in case) they were to hear, they could not grant it (your request) to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none can inform you (O Muhammad) like Him Who is the All‑Knower (of everything).
O mankind! it is you who stand in need of Allah. But Allah is Rich (Free of all needs), Worthy of all praise”

[Faatir 35: 13-15]

From Usool al-Deen al-Islami by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem al-Tuwayjri

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